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The Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal and Proceedings. 1925. Part II




期刊: Journal and Proceedings of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland  (RSC Available online 1925)
卷期: Volume 49, issue 1  

页码: 71-146




年代: 1925




出版商: RSC


数据来源: RSC



THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. FOUNDED, 1877. INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 1885. JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS. 1925. PART 11. Issued under the supervision of the Publications Committee. RICHARD B. PILCHER, Registrar and Secretary. 30, RUSSELLSQUARE, W.C. 1.LONDON, April, 1925. Publications Committee, 1925-26 T. SLATER PRICE (Chairmatz), G. G. HENDERSON (President), H. C. L. BLOXAM, A. J. CHAPMAN, F. D. CHATTAWAY, W. M. CUMMING, LEONARD DOBBIN, A. VINCENT ELSDEN, W. R. FEARON, R. H. GREAVES, A. J. HALE, C. A. F. HASTILOW, I. M HEILBRON, PATRICK H. KIRKALDY (Treasurer). THOMAS MACARA, L. G. PAUL, B. D PORRITT, W. D. ROGERS, FRANK SOUTHERDEN. LIST OF OFFICERS AND COUNCIL For the Year ending March lst, 1926.PRESIDENT: GEORGE GERALD HENDERSON, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. VICE-PRESIDENTS: EDWARD CHARLES CYRIL BALY, c.B.E., nmc., F.R.S. EDWARD RICHARDS BOLTON. ALFRED CHASTON CHAPMAN, F.R.S. THOMAS SLATER, PRICE, O.B.E., D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S. ARTHUR SMITHELLS, C.M.G., B.Sc., F.R.S. EDWARD WILLIAM VOELCKER, A.R.S.M. HON. TREASURER: PATRICK HENRY KIRKALDY. MEMBERS OF COUNCIL: LEONARD ARCHBUTT : (BURNHAM,SOMERSET).FRANCIS WILLIAM FREDERICK ARNAUD : (MAIDSTONE).HUGH CHARLES LOUDON BLOXAM : (NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE).ARTHUR JENNER CHAPMAN: (LONDON). FREDERICK DANIEL CHATTAWAY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. :(OXFORD).HAROLD GOVETT COLMAN, D.Sc., Ph.D. : (LONDON).WILLIAM MURDOCH CUMMING, l3.S~. : (GLASGOW)."LEONARD DOBBIN, Ph.D.: (EDINBURGHAND E. OF SCOTLAND).ALFRED VINCENT ELSDEN, B.Sc. : (WOOLWICH).*HERBERT JOHN EVANS, B.Sc. : (LIVERPOOLAND NORTH WESTERN). *WILLIAM ROBERT FEARON, M.A., Sc.D.: (IRISHFREESTATE).*WILLIAM HOWIESON GIBSON, O.B.E., D.Sc. :(NORTHERNIRELAND).RICHARD HENRY GREAVES, D.Sc. : (WOOLWICH).THOMAS GRAY, D.Sc., Ph.D., LL.D.: (GLASGOW). ARTHUR JAMES HALE, B.Sc. : (LONDON).*CYRIL ALEXANDER FREDERICK HASTILOW, M.Sc. : (BIRMINGHAMAND MIDLANDS).*ERNEST MOSTYN HAWKINS: (LONDONAND S.E. COUNTIES). ISIDOR MORRIS HEILBRON, D.S.O., D.Sc., Ph.D. : (LIVERPOOL).WILLIAM HENRY LEWIS, M.A.: (EXETER).THOMAS MACARA: (LONDON). HAMILTON McCOMBIE, D.S.O., M.A., Ph.D.: (CAMBRIDGE).*SAMUEL ERNEST MELLING : (MANCHESTER AND DISTRICT).ROBERT SELBY MORRELL, M.A., Ph.D.: (WOLVERHAMPTON).*LEWIS GORDON PAUL, Ph.D. : (NORTH-EASTCOASTAND YORKSHIRE).ROBERT HOWSON PICKARD, DSc., Ph.D., F.R.S. : (LONDON).BENJAMIN DAWSON PORRITT, M.Sc. : (LONDON).FRANK LEE PYMAN, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S. : (MANCHESTER).WILLIAM RINTOUL, O.B.E. : (ARDROSSAN).WILLIAM DAVID ROGERS, B.Rc., A.R.C.S. : (MAKCHESTER).FRED SCHOLEFIELD, M.Sc. : (MANCHESTER)."CLARENCE ARTHUR SEYLER, B.Sc. :(WALESAND MONMOUTHSH~).HARRY SILVESTER : (BIRMINGHAM).ARTHUR SLATOR, D.Sc., Ph.D. : (BURTON-ON-TRENT)."FRANK SOUTHERDEN, B.Sc. : (BRISTOL AND S.W. COUNTIES).JOCELYN FIELD THORPE, C.R.E., D.Sc., F.R.S.: (LONDON).JAMES FOWLER TOCHER, D.Sc. : (ABERDEEN).*JOHN HENRY YOUNG, M.Sc.: (GLASGOWAND WEST OF SCOTLAND). *District Member.74 DATES OF COUNCIL MEETINGS: 1926: APRIL 24~~. 1926: NOVEMBER 2bH. MAY 22ND. DECEMBER 18m. JUNE 19~~. 1926: JANUARY 2hD. JULY 24~~. JANUARY 29~~. OCTOBER 16~~. FEBRUARY 26~~. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING: MONDAY, IST MARCH, 1926. CENSORS: 1925-1026: THE PRESIDENT. ex-oflcio. ALFRED CHASTON CHAPIVIAN, F.R.S. SIR HERBERT JACKSON, K.B.E., F.R.S. GILBERT THOMAS MORGAN, O.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S. SIR ROBERT ROBERTSON, K.B.E., D.S.C., F.R.S. Committees for 1925-26. CHAIRMAN+ FINANCE AND HOUSE COMMITTEE: THEPRESIDENT, WTTH E. R. ROLTON, A. J. CHAPMAN, HAROLD G. COLMAN, R. H. GREAVES, E. M. HAWKINS, PATRICK H,KIRKALDY," THOMAS MACARA, R. H. PICKARD, R.,D. PORRITT, J. F. THORPE, AND E. W. VOELCKER, GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE : THE PRESIDENT" AND COUNCIL IN COMMITTEE.LEGAL AND PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE : THE PRESIDENT, WITH F. W. F. ARNAUD, E. R. BOLTON, THOMAB GRAY, E. &I. HAWKINS, PATRICK H. KTRKALDY, H. McCOMRIE, R. S. MORRELL, F. L PYMAN, WILLIAM RINTOUL, HARRY SILVESTER, ARTHUR SMITHELLS," J. P. TOCHER, m~ E. W. VOELCKER. NOMlNATIONS, EXAM INATIONS, AND INSTlTUTlONS COMMITTEE: THE PRESIDENT" AND COUNCIL IN COMMITTEE. (Vice-chairman : PATRICK H. KIRKALDY.) PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: THE PRESIDENT, WITH H. C. L. BLOXATM, A. J. CHAPMAJS, F D CHATTAWAY, W. 11. CUMMING, LEONARD DOBBIN, A. V. ELSDEN, W. R. FEARON, R. H. GREAVES, A. J. HALE, C. A. P. HASTILOW, I. M. HEILRRON, PATRICK H. KIR-KALDY, THOMAS MACARA, L. G. PAUL, B. D. PORRIT",T. SLATER PRICE,* W.D. ROGERS, AND FRANK SOUTHER- DEN. 75 SPECIAL COMMITTEES, 1925-26. BENEVOLENT FUND COMMITTEE : THBPRESIDENT, THE HON. TREASURER, THE FINANCE AND HOUSE COMMITTEE, with H. BALLANTYNE, A. COULTHARD (MANCHESTER), LEONARD DOBBIK W. M. CUMMING (GLASGOW),(EDINBURGH),A. VINCENT ELSDEN, W. H. GIBSON (BELFAST), C. A. F. HASTILOW (BIRMINGHAM), H. L. HEATHCOTE, A. G. G. LEONARD (DUBLIN), R. D. LITTLEFIELD (BRISTOL), W. D, MACKEY (LEEDS), S. E. MELLING (MANCHESTER), L. G. PAUL (HUDDERSFIELD),G. H. PERRY, C. PROCTOR, FRED SCHOLE- FIELD (MANCHESTER), H. SILVESTER, C. J. H. STOCK (NEW- CIASTLE), G. TATE (LIVERPOOL), G. RUDD THOMPSON (SOUTHWALES),AND 0. TRIGGER (LONDON). In the case of Section representatives, the names of their respective towns are inserted.PUBLIC APPOINTMENTS COMMITTEE : TEE PRESIDENT, WITH F. W. F. ARNAUD, H. C. L. BLOXAM. E. R. BOLTON, A. CHASTON CHAPMAN, C. H. CRIRB, J. T. DU", BERNARD DYER, A. VINCENT ELSDEN, E. M. HAWKINS, EDWARD HINKS, G. N. HUNTLY, S. E. MELLING, A. MORE, G. H. PERRY, J. C. PHILIP, P. A. ELLIS RICHARDS, W. H. ROBERTS, C. A. SEYLER, H. SILVESTER, A. SMITHELLS. C. J. H. STOCK, G. RUDD THOMPSON, J. F. TOCHER, E. W-VOELCKER, AND J. A. VOELCKER. JOINT COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE INSTITUTE AND OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION: THE PRESIDENT, WITH PATRICK H. KIRKALDY, G. T. MORGAK, R. H. PICKARD, T. SLATER PRICE, ARTHUR SMITHELLS (Vice-chairman). BOARD OF EXAMINERS FOR THE ASSOCIATESHIP AND FELLOWSHIP, 1925-26.Chairman: THE PRESIDENT. Three Representatives of the Nominations, Examinations and Institutions Committee. Examiners foor the Associateship : GEORGE NEVILL HUNTLY, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.S. ; GILBERT THOMAS MORGAN, O.B.E., D.Sc. (Lond.), F.R.S. Examiners jor the Fellowship : Branch A.-INORQANIC CHEMISTRY: JOHN JACOB FOX, O.B.E., D.Sc. (Lond.); WILLIAM HENRY MERRETT, A.R.S.M. Branch B.-PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: JAMES CHARLES PHILIP, O.B.E., M.A., D.Sc. (Aberd.), F.R.S. Branch C.-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: FRANCIS E. FRANCIS, D.Sc. (Vict.), Ph.D. (Erlangen). Branch D.-AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY: HENRY ALLEN DUG-DALE NEVILLE, M.A. (Cantab.), B.Sc., (Lond.). 76 Branch E.-THE CHEMISTRY(including Microscopy) of Foods and Drugs and Water: WILLIAM HENRY ROBERTS, M.Sc.(Vict.). Branch F.-BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, FERMENTATION,BACTERIOLOGY, AND ENZYMEACTION: HENRY STANLEY RAPER, C.B.E., D.Sc. (Leeds), M.B., Ch.B. PHBRMACOLOGY,{t.p.m.) THERAPEUTICS, AND MICROSCOPY: FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS, D.Sc.(Lond.), M.B. (Lond.), F.R.S. Branch G.-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. As required. Branch H.-GENERAL ANALYTICALCHEMISTRY. The Board. HON. AUDITORS 1925-26. CHARLES THOMAS ABELL, M.Sc., AND ARTHUR GORDON FRANCIS, B.Sc. AUDITOR : 1925-26. DAVID HENDERSON, Chartered Accountant. SOLICITORS : MESSRS. MARKBY, STEWART & WADESONS, 5, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.2. BANKERS: THE WESTMINSTER BANK, LTD., Bloomsbury Branch, 214, High Holborn, London, W.C.1. REGISTRAR AND SECRETARY: RICHARD BERTRAM PILCHER, O.B.E., Chartered Secretary. ASSISTANT SECRETARY: RONALD LESLIE COLLETT, M.A.(Cantab.), F.I.C. Forty-Seventh Annual General Meeting MONDAY, 2nd MARCH, 1925. THEForty-Seventh Annual General Meeting of the Institute was held at 30, Russell Square, London, N7.C.1., on Monday, and March, 1925,Prof. G. G. Henderson (President) in the chair. PRESENTATIONOF MELDOLAMEDAL. The President said that he had hoped to see Mrs. Meldola at the presentation of the medal, but unfortunately, the Registrar had received a note to say that she was not well. She had expressed her disappointment at not being able to be present, and offered her congratulations to Dr. Harris. On presenting the medal to Dr. Leslie Julius Harris the Pre- sident said: “Dr.Harris, it is my very pleasant duty to present the Meldola Medal, which has been awarded to you by the Council of the Institute, with the concurrence of the Society of Macca-baeans. I may remind you that this Medal was instituted as a memorial of a very distinguished chemist, the late Prof. Meldola, who was president of the Society of Maccabaeans as well as of the Institute, and is awarded in recognition of research work of outstanding merit carried out by a young chemist whose age does not exceed 30 years. This is hardly an occasion on which to enter into a detailed account of your investigations, and 1 shall content myself with saying that the Council has been impressed by the very considerable amount of excellent work which you have already carried out in a very difficult branch of our subject, the branch of bio-chemistry.Your physico-chemical investigations of the proteins and their constituents have contributed important additions to our knowledge of these compounds, and the new and ingenious application of analytical methods which you have devised appears to be available in the case of substances hitherto considered impossible of examination by such means, and will in all probability prove of great assist- ance in elucidating the structure of such complex substances 78 as the proteins. May I suggest to you that the Medal is awarded not only in recognition of the work which you have already done, but even more as an incentive to further effort.(Hear, hear.) In offering you my personal congratulations I also cxpress the hope that you will continue to follow with even greater zeal and success the career in which you have made such a brilliant start. I have very great pleasure in presenting you with this Medal.” (Applause.) Dr. Leslie Julius Harris, in reply, said: “Mr. President, sir, may I say how grateful I am for the generous phrases which you have associated with the presentation of this Medal? There can scarcely be an investigator in scientific research to whom encouragement, or the interest of other workers, can fail to act as a stimulus. I am certain that this occasion will encourage me to persevere, and will endow me with a measure of that patience which is so essential a feature of the research worker’s equipment.If I may be allowed to express my thanks, it would be thanks to those whose inspired teaching has imbued me with some of their own enthusiasm for research. (Hear, hear.) Only those who like myself have had the good fortune to work in the laboratory at Cambridge, which is led by that great bio-chemist, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, can realise how much his pupils owe to the inspiration of having come under his influence. Finally, I should like, as a bio-chemist, to express my gratification that a physiological investigation has been honoured by the Medal awarded to me. I think this puts me under an obligation, and I hope accordingly to have the opportunity in the future of applying my mass-law titration methods, which were originally elaborated for bio-chemical problems, to estimations in pure chemistry which are beyond the scope of the ordinary arbitrary methods of acidimetry.I am very grateful, sir, and thank you very much for this obligation to persevere, and also for the encouragement which the Medal carries with it .” (Applause.) ORDINARYANNUALBUSINESS. The Secretary read the Minutes of the 46th Annual General Meeting, held on the 3rd March, 1924, which were confirmed. ANNUALACCOUNTS. Mr. P. H. Kirkaldy (Honorary Treasurer) moved the adoption of the annual accounts. Mr. Kirkaldy said that when the members did him the honour, twelve months ago, to elect him to the post of Treasurer of tho 79 Institute, he thought that he must have managed to conceal from every- body, except himself, his unfitness for the position.He was very sorry then that the former Treasurer, Mr. Voelcker, had been obliged to resign the office, and was even more sorry that he was not addressing them in his place. Thev would probably remember the story of Lord RandolphChurchill, when he first went to the Treasury, calling on his Departmentto furnish him with a return. That return was drawn up in the usual form; when it reached him he saw the figures, tobacco 4.76, wines and spirits 7.92, beer 10.47, and so on, and said to the person who furnished the report, “These figures are very interesting, but what are those damned little dots for?” (Laughter.) His difficulty had not been quite of that sort, but there had been some difficulties to overcome during the past twelve months.He thanked the members sincerely for the honour which they had done him. The duties were heavy, but they had been lightened very greatly by the loyal and sometimes instructive help which he had received from the Committee. He knew a good deal more about fhanco than he did twelve months ago, and took the opportunity of renderingto the Committee his grateful thanks. He would like to thank Mr. Pilcher, and also Mr. Aiken, the accounts clerk, who had also been helpful to him during the year. The members had no doubt examined the accounts, and they would be glad to note that the financial position of the Institute was sound, and continued to improve.The main points of interest were dealt with in the Report, but should any member wish for further information on any point, he would do his best to supply it. The investment of life’ composition and entrance fees had been kept up to date. The Council recorded with gratitude the receipt of a legacy of %lo00 under the will of the late Mr. Edward Riley. This legacy was intended to replace part of the general fund used in the building account ten years ago, and had been so applied. A further legacy would be received, under the will of the late Sir Alexander Pedler; the sum would probably be about $4,800. Bcfore the foundation of the Institute, Sir Alexander had been assistant to Sir Edward Frankland, the first President of the Institute.He had always taken a keen interest in the work of the Institute, and at the time of his death, which occurred suddenly in 1918, had accepted nomination for the office of Treasurer. The Institute would hold his name in grateful memory. At the previous General Meeting a staff insurance scheme had been sanctioned; it had been put into operation immediately after the meeting, and was working satisfactorily. At the same meeting, the members had voted a pension of %la week to Mrs. Smith, the widow of the late house- keeper, but he was sorry to say that Mrs. Smith had only survived her husband a few months. In the report there was also a reference to tho work of the Bencvolent Fund Committee. The Committee had always felt that when the need arose, funds would be forthcoming, and he was glad to say that these expectations had been realised.In the first two months of this ycar, the fund had received a sum in round figures of E420, practically equal to the whole amount received in 1924. He hoped, howcvcr, that this tribute to the generosity of the members would not check the flow of subscriptions and donations. The Committee still had to deal with cases of urgent necessity, and thanks to the support received, had been able to render help to fellow members in times of difficulty. He thanked the members of the Committee for their work, and especially those members of Local Sections who had helped so much by taking a personal intercst in local cases, thus enabling the Committee to deal with them on satisfactory lines.He would mention one further matter in connection with the Benevolent Fund, namely, that of loans. Loans had been granted in special cases; 80 for example, members requiring help in order to take up appointments. Some of the loans were already being repaid, which was an indication that they had been of real help to those who had been assisted. It was proposed to institute an annuity scheme for members who were incapacitated from practice. When this scheme was finally approved and set up, he felt con- fident that it would attract strong support, and would fill a real want. In moving “That the Financial Statement and the Rjeport of the Auditors for the year 1924 be received and adopted, and that a vote of thanks b9 accorded to the Auditors for their services,” he wished to be allowed to assure the Auditors how much their services had been appreciated.(Hear, hear.) Dr. McGowan, in seconding the resolution, said that he had little to add to what the Hon. Treasurer had said. The members were glad that tho financial position of the Institute was so satisfactory; in fact so very good that there was no question about the soundness of establishing the staff insurance scheme. He had always been particularly interested in the Benevolent Fund. There was a good number of subscribers today, but they did not, constitute a very large proportion of the members of the Institute. He felt that the reason why a great many did not send in a small yearly subscription was that they forgot about it, and he suggested that they should put a knot in their handkerchiefs to enable them to remember to send in a small yearly subscription, because if every member did so, the Benevolent Fund would flourish.The President asked whether any member had any questions to address to the Honorary Treasurer. Miss Chatt having asked what was the special honorarium of LIOO in the accounts, the Hon. Treasurer replied that the Council had given the Assistant Secretary the honorarium to pay his fees when he was called to the Bar. The motion was then put to the meeting, and carried unani- mously. AXNUALREPORT. The President delivered his address (p. 91) and moved the adoption of the Report of the Council.Dr. J. T. Dunn, in seconding the motion for the adoption of the Report, said that he would like to be allowed to refer for one momcnt to Otto Hehner. As a fellow consultant, he had come into contact and worked with him, and he would like to say how much his loss would be deplored. It was not only that he was at all times willing to place his knowledge, wide as it was, at the disposal of his fellow consultants, but there was the kindliness and geniality of his disposition. One gave him not only admira- tion and esteem, but affection, he might almost say love. His death was a very great shock, and left one with an uncommon sense of personal loss. As the President had said, the Report did not show any very startling features, but if they read the second section they would see how, in many quarters, the advice of the Council of the Institute was sought, and how widely the influence of the Institute extended.That section alone indicated the good healthy work that was being continually done. He had much pleasure in seconding the motion. The President, having invited questions and remarks on the Report, the motion was put to the meeting, and carried. 81 VOTE OF THANKSTO THE PRESIDENT. Mr. A. Chaston Chapman said that before the Registrar read the report of the Scrutineers, he would like to propose a very hearty vote of thanks to the President for his address. Mr. Chaston Chapman said that, whatever qualifications he might possess for the task, he at least knew what it was to have to preparean address at a time of the year when most of them were exceedingly busy.He knew that, added as it was to the many Presidential duties, it imposed a strain and made a demand on the time and energy of the President. He did not propose to paint the lily. The President had given a very clear and very interesting account of the activities of the Institute during the past year; he had told them how milch had been done of good, quiet, solid work, and they had listened to his address with extreme interest. He had touched upon several points on which he would have liked, had time permitted, to say a few words. There was for example, the question of the part played-or rather, the part that was not played, as it should be --by scientific men, in the affairs of the State.The President had also referred to another matter, namely, the Government registration of chemists and the making of chemistry a closed profession. He could only say, with regard to the part played by chemists in the affairs of State, that he thought much misunderstanding arose from the very use of the word science, He referred to the extraordinary lack of information among a very large number of our coming men in the country. They thought that science was something quite apart and remote from all the affairs of life, that the man who practised science was a peculiar person who ought to be put aside and kept under supervision, and not allowed to take any active part in things which did not concern him.(Laughter.) The Institute wanted to get people to realise that science was co-ordinated knowledge. It seemed extraordinary that a person who possessed the co -ordinabed knowledge of some part of the material world in which we all lived, and with which we were all intimately concerned, should be less qualified to form a just and true appreciation and judgment of ordinary matters of life than a man who did not possess that knowledge. The President's city, Glasgow, WAS to be congratulated on the part that its local Section played in public life. They could look to the President during his remain- ing period of ofice to do all he could. as suggested in his address, to bring home to the public what science really meant, and how useful scientific men could be in the affairs of State if they were only allowed to take a part.He asked the meeting to do what he knew it would do with thegreatest possible pleasure, and that was to pass a very hearty vote of thanks to the President for his very interesting address, and t'o request that he would allow it to be printed in the Journal. (Applause.) Mr. G. Rudd Thompson claimed the honour of seconding the proposi- tion. He was sure that they could have but one opinion: that it was scholarly and scientific. (Hear, hear.) He could speak with some little feeling of sympathy with the President, as to the responsibility and anxiety attending the preparation and delivery of a Presidential Address ; but the ground he had covered was adequate, and they were deoply grate- ful to him for what he had placed before them.If the President would be so good as to allow it to be printed, he for one, would anxiously await its publication, because he thought that the address expressed in the most eloquent manner the claims for the recognition of the chemist who was, he feared, in many cases, looked upon as a necessary evil. The motion was carried with acclamation. 82 The President, in reply, said that he was indebted to the members for their tolerance in listening to him, but he felt bound to inflict upon them some views which might possibly give rise to a considerable difference of opinion. It was one of the advantages that attach to the Presidential post that he had one opportunity at least of putting his own views before his fellow members.(Laughter.) He thanked the meeting very warmly for the vote. REPORTOF SCRUTINEERS. The Registrar read the Report of the Scrutineers, and the President declared the officers elected, as follows :-President: G. G. Henderson (793). Vice-presidents: E. C. C. Baly (782), Arthur Smithells (777), A. Chaston Chapman (775), T. Slater Price (773), Edward William Voelcker (773), E. R. Bolton (769). Hon. Treasurer : Patrick H. Kirkaldy (795). The number of valid votes cast for the General Mombers of Council was 795, The General Members of Council wero dcclsred clectetl as follows:-I. M. Heilbron (577), J. F. Thorpe (554), William Rintoul (538),W. H. Roberts (523), H. McCombie (511), Thomas Gray (506), W.D. Rogers (501), R. H. Pickard (501), F. 13. Chattaway (494), H. Silvester (488),R. S. Morrell (488), L. Archbutt (487), \V. M. Cumming (479), R. D. Porritt (462),R. H. Greaves (458),H. G. Colman (452), F. L. Pyman (451), A. Slator (438),T. Rllacara (431), J. F. Tocher (428), A. J. Hale (428),A. V. Elsden (426), W. H. Lewis (425), A. J. Chapman (418), H. C. L. Bloxam (404), F. Scholefield (401), F. W. F. Arnaud (372). The number of valid votes cast for the Censors was 713. The Censors were declared elected as follows: A. Chaston Chapman (590), Sir Herbert Jackson (525), Sir Robert Robertson (609), G. T. Morgan (430). The President then moved that a vote of thanks be accorded to the scrutineers, Dr. Henry Phillips and Mr.I<. A. Williams, for their services. He remarked that the scrutiny of the voting papers was no mere form. There was a large number of votes, and that testified to the interest the members took in the affairs of the Institute; but he would like to see the numbers twice or three times as great, though it would add to the labours of the scrutineers. They had worked persistently and well for some days past, and the members owed them a great debt of gratitude. Mr. S. 0. Rawling having seconded the motion, the vote was carried unanimously. ELECTION AUDITORS.OF The Secretary reported that Mr. Simmons, having served for three years, was unable to serve again as Auditor, but that Mr. Chas. T. Abell was willing to be re-appointed.The President asked the meeting to suggest the name of some other member who would be willing to accept office as an Hon. Auditor. Miss Chatt proposed Mr. A. G. Francis, if he were willing to serve. Mr. F. H. Cam seconded, and Messrs. C. T. Abell and A. G. Francis were thereupon unanimously elected Honorary Auditors. Mr. W. H. Peters moved, Mr. A. J. Chapman seconded, and it was resolved, that Mr. David Henderson, Chartered Accountant, be re-appointed Auditor at the remuneration of 30 guineas. SPECIAL BUSINESS: ALTERATIONOF ENTRANCEFEE. The Hon. Treasurer moved: “That the entrance fee for those associates who, having been registered as students of the Institute for not less than two years, are elected to the associateship within one year of completing the prescribed course of training, be reduced to one guinea.’’ The Hon.Treasurer said that the Council desired to do some-thing to make things easier for younger members coming into the Institute, and the Finance Committee was asked to consider ways and means. The first proposal was an obvious one: that the annual subscription of Asso-ciates should be reduced; but a reduction of the subscription of an Associate by 5s. would mean a loss of income to the Institute of over f900 per annum. That suggestion could not be considered at present; later on, it might bo possible. The next proposal was that something should be done with regard to the entrance fee; and after discussion by the Finance Committee and the Council, he was asked to propose the resolution which he had read.A candidate for the Associateship was required, at present, to pay an entrance fee of two guineas, but, if the proposition was carried, students who had been registercd for two years and were elected to the Associateship within one year of completing the prescribed course, would be required to pay only one guinea. Those students would have paid two years’ students’ subscriptions of ten shillings, so that, in fact, they would have paid almost the same amount as the Associates who had not fulfilled the same conditions, hut it would be spread over three years instend of being made in one sum, and the students received the Journal, and had other privileges. Dr. R. H. Pickard seconded the proposition, which was carried unanimously.The President proposed that a very hearty vote of thanks be accorded the retiring Vice-president and the retiring Members of Council for their services, remarking that the Institute made heavy claims on the Members of Council both with regard to 84 time and actual work. He said that the Council would miss very greatly the retiring members, and mentioned especially the retiring Vice-president, Mr. More. He was glad to think that the Institute could look forward to a constant supply of Members of Council who were ready to fill up the vacancies as they occurred. The motion was carried with acclamation. Having concluded the ordinary and special business of the meeting, the President said that he had then to introduce some extra special business.PRESENTATIOKTO MR. PILCKER. It was intimated at the foot of the agenda that he was to be associated with his old friend Prof. Thomson in offering to Mr. Pilcher, on his having held office for 30 years as Secretary, and 25 years as Registrar and Secretary, a presentation on behalf of the Fellows and Associates. Some of the principal gifts com- posing the presentation were displayed in the Library, and he invited the members to inspect them at the close of the meeting. Addressing the Registrar, the President said: “I count it equally a privilege and a pleasure to act as the representative of a very large number of our members in asking you to accept a memento of this double anniversary.In making this presenta- tion we desire to pay tribute not only to your admirable efficiency as an official with an illustrious record of service, but also to the unflagging zeal with which, by means of writings and addresses, you have striven to promote the welfare and the influence of the Institute, and incidentally of our profession. (Applause.) Above all, however, we desire to give expression to our esteem and regard for an upright man, whose warm heart and eager helpfulness have endeared him to so many. (Applause.) We feel, moreover, that the quiet and retiring part which Mrs. Pilcher has played in contributing to your success, cannot possibly be overlooked. (Hear, hear.) We know that you would be the first to proclaim that without her unfailing sympathy and en- couragement you could not possibly have accomplished all that you have done, and we are fully aware that your gratification would be greatly diminished if Mrs.Pilcher were not associated with yourself as a recipient of our gift. I: had hoped that Mrs. Pilcher would have overcome that retiring disposition to which I have referred to a sufficient extent to be present here, because 1would wish to ask her as well as yourself, Mr. Pilcher, to accept 85 in the first instance this album, which contains the signatures of the contributors to the presentation. You will perhaps bear with me for a moment if I read the inscription on the title page: ‘‘This Album contains the names of Subscribers, Fellows and Associates of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland, to a presentation made to Richard Bertram Pilcher on the occasion of his having completed one-third of a century in the service of the Institute, including 30 years as Secretary and 25 years in the dual position of Registrar and Secretary.“The signatories express the hope that Mr. Pilcher will continue for many years in the excellent work he has for so long performed in the interests of the Institute and of the profession of Chemistry.” I ask you also to accept on behalf of Mrs. Pilcher and yourself the more tangible evidences of our regard, to which I have referred. I may inform the members-it is no secret-that of course the Committee consulted the wishes of Mrs. and Mr.Pilcher in selecting those gifts. At the same time, Mr. Pilcher, I ask you to accept the assurance of our heartfelt wish that you may long continue to enjoy health and happiness together.” (Applause.) Prof. Thomson said: “It is with great pleasure that I find myself committed to second our President’s offers of congratu- lation to Mr. Pilcher on the completion of his 30 years’ service as Secretary of the Institute of Chemistry. This privilege I attribute to my long acquaintance with Mr. Pilcher, dating back to 1892, when he first came to us as clerk to Mr. Robertson, then our Secretary and Registrar. From that date I saw Mr. Pilcher almost constantly, and afterwards I had the pleasure of working with him, in the interests of the Institute, for practically eleven years.(Applause.) In those early days of initiation and struggle, those attempting the development of the Institute did not ex- perience a bed of roses, but it is a great satisfaction to us older members to see, after those early struggles, the enormous expansion of its work, and the good feeling everywhere with which that work is conducted. (Hear, hear.) It is quite un- necessary for me to emphasise the part that our Registrar has taken in developing that work. (Hear, hear.) You have only to look at the Report of the Institute for 1891 and compare it with that for 1924 to see how much he has done, outside the 86 mere official routine of his office, to assist the Council in the development of the interests of our Institute.(Applause.) In expressing our congratulations to Mr. Pilcher, to-day, I feel-and from what you have said, Mr. President, I know you agree with me, and the other members I hope, will also agree-that these congratulations would be incomplete did not we unite with them the name of Mrs. Pilcher-(applause)-who I know has always watched with interest the progress of our undertaking, and, with quiet unobtrusive help, has furthered her husband’s hopes and wishes. (Hear, hear.) There was a time, now happily long gone past, when I feared that the Institute might lose the services of Mr. Pilcher, but happily the Council was able to make arrangements, so that he might get that rest and change of climate which ultimately enabled him to return to us.(Applause.) During that period, I know that the careful attention of Mrs. Pilcher did much to hasten his recovery, and his return to the Institute. (Hear, hear.) After offering Mr. Pilcher to-day our thanks and congratulations on his completing 33 years’ service in the Institute, I cannot see that there is any other course left to the Council and Members to take than that they should in their own interests sentence him to another period of 25 years’ hard labour, wishing him all the health and strength to carry out that sentence.” (Laughter and applause.) The President said that an enormous number of letters had been received from Fellows and Associates who were anxious to participate in the presentation, but were unable to attend.It would be impossible to read extracts from all of them, but one or two were of particular interest, and he asked Mr. Marlow to read a sentence or two from them before asking Mr. Pilcher to say a few words. Mr. Marlow read excerpts from letters and messages received from Sir William Tilden and Prof. Percy F. Frankland, Past Presidents, Mr. C. T. Kingzett, one of the signatories to the first Articles of Association, and Prof. W. Palmer Wynne, President of the Chemical Society, telegrams received from Local Sections of the Institute, and a cable from the Malaya Section. Mr. Pilcher, who was received with great applause on rising, said, ‘‘Mr. President, Prof. Thomson, ladies and gentlemen,-I feel almost overwhelmed. 1 am honoured beyond my deserts.87 I think I have had very great good fortune to follow the wonder- ful career which has been afforded me, and I can only feel thank- fulness, gratitude, and joy-although I may not look very joyful at this moment!-for all you have done for me from the time I had anything to do with the Institute. May I, in the first place, thank you most sincerely for your kind gifts. I thank those who thought of celebrating this great occasion, all those who have taken part in it, and I also thank my staff on whom a great deal of the work has fallen. May I say, sir, that the book will awaken in my mind, in the years to come, pleasant and happy memories of -very dear friends, and I shall treasure it as long as I live.Your gifts will be enjoyed by my wife and family, and myself; they will pass, in due course, to our youngsters as heir- looms, and will, I am sure, be appreciated by them. I cannot tell you exactly what I feel on the present occasion, because things like this do not often happen to any one; but I ain truly grateful. I should like also, if I may, to make some slight allu- sion to the early days, and to say how grateful I am to Prof. Thomson for having come here this afternoon. Prof. Thomson was for many years almost like a father to me. When I tell you of the little happenings of the very first days, I think some of you may be interested in them. My introduction to the Institute came through my cousin Mr. Walter Bond, who was for many years Editor of the Electrician; he is a well-known engineer, and is alive and well to-day.He had been an officer in the Army, as my predecessor Mr. Robertson had been; and when Mr. Robertson was appointed Secretary of the Institute, and required a clerk, Mr. Bond introduced me to him. On a certain day in March, 1892, Mr. Robertson asked me to lunch with him. He took me to the old Gaiety Restaurant, where the senior staff of King’s College, at that time, reserved a special table. 1had lunch with Mr. Robertson, and without my knowledge I was under observa- tion. Afterwards, I was taken to the table where Prof. Thomson sat, and was introduced to him. I learned something later, which I will tell you in a minute. I was sent on to Mr. Michael Carteighe, whom I saw in Old Bond Street.He asked me a few questions in a businesslike way, for he was a very fine business man. A few days after, I received a letter from Mr. Robertson, in which he said that Prof. Thomson had “taken a great fancy to me.” I have always cherished that memory, and I always look back with tremendous gratitude to Prof. Thomson, to Sir William Tilden, who was then President, to Mr. David Howard, who was then 88 Treasurer, and to Mr. Michael Carteighe, who had faith in a boy of 18 looking for a new job, and gave him his chance. I have been always exceedingly grateful to them because less than three years afterwards they thought that boy could be Secretary to the Institute of Chemistry. I learned some time afterwards that at the Council Meeting on the 1st March, 1895, somebody suggested that he was very young -as a matter of fact he was 22 days under 21-and Mr.Michael Carteighe said: “Well, he will soon get over that.’’ (Laughter.) For very many years people used to come into the office and say: “Are you the Secretary?” and look at me as though it were impossible that I should be--thinking that I must be a junior clerk or the office boy. (Laughter.) Even after I was married, I had a passage of arms with a traveller, who called me “a bit of a boy,” and shouted “a bit of a boy” on the doorstep long after Behrens, the housekeeper, had turned him out. (Laughter.) I have many interesting recollections, and I an1 very grateful for all of them, I would not choose any other career could I start all over again.(Applause.) It has all been so human and so interesting, and it has been so wonderful to see the development of young people. I have served under every President except four, and I knew them all well. I have served under all the Treasurers except one, and I knew him. am grateful to all of them, and I cherish the memory of many who have gone. I should like now to refer to one or two members of my staff. With regard to the clerks who helped me willingly in the early days, when there was only one clerk, one is now a stockbroker, and oddly enough has his son at Highgate School with one of mine. The boys became boon companions without knowing that their fathers had been acquainted with one another years ago.The two boys were always together, and did not find out for four or five months that their fathers had worked together in years gone by. In the course of yeais, some of the staff were with me for longer periods. Mr. Stanley Carr, now of the Chemi- cal Society, was with me for G+ years. He kept my place warm for me during the period to which Prof. Thomson has referred, when I had to go to Switzerland for six months: Prof. Thomson was then President. I have always been grateful to Mr. Carr for his help during the tinre he was with me. Then there was Mr. William Bird, now Secretary of the Institute of Brewing, another able fellow. There seems to be some fatality about the period of six years, because he was with me for 66 years or thereabouts; and now I have had Mr.Marlow with me for six years. He knows I am grateful to him. At the end of the war, 1thought I had not much longer to go, but with his help I have pulled through, and am now in better health than 1have been for many years. I am very grateful to all my staff, and 1 can say that they have been simply splendid to work with. I Bave a very loyal staff to-day. I have a nice lot of young people around me who are really keenly interested in their work. (Hear, hear.) There is one more person in the office to whom I must refer, especially-I hardly dare do it, because her modesty is such that the mention of her name will get me into trouble-but there is .Miss Cawston, whose work for the Institute, and whose devotion during the time she has been with me, which datcs back before the war, have been nothing short of marvellous. We can always rely upon her.Now I must frankly endorse what the President and Prof. Thomson have already alluded to, and that is the help and encouragement which I have had from my wife. Anybody who knows my wife knows that she is a wonderful woman. (Applause.) What she has put up with from me for many years -a man coming home at all sorts of hours-not because he was not doing his work-(laughter)-and when he was at home was usually at work, indicates what it means to be married to the Registrar and Secretary of the Institute of Chemistry. (Laughter and applause.) This is really a treble event, because we cele- brated the completion of 25 years of married happiness in August last.(Applause.) Well, Mr. President and Prof. Thomson, I have tried to make some sort of response to the very kind remarks which you have made, but I am afraid that it has been a very poor effort. I felt that on such an occasion I could not prepare a speech. I had to speak from my heart or not at all. I thank you most sincerely for your very great kindness to me, and 1hope that I may be spared to help the Institute for some time yet, and to see it still further improve its position. I have never lacked encouragement; I am encouraged more than ever to endeavour to deserve your kindness. (Loud applause.) The meeting concluded with musical honours, and with cheers for Mr.and Mrs. Pilcher. In the evening the President and Council entertained Mr. and Mrs. Pilcher and their family to dinner at the Hotel Russell. The company also included many other Fellows and Associates and the staff of the Institute. 90 The President proposed the health of the Registrar and his family, the Registrar in reply again expressing his thanks for all the kindness shown to him. He introduced various members of his family, including his brother, Xlr. Francis Pilcher, of Bournemouth, who proposed the prosperity of the Institute, coupled with the name of the President. The President having replied, the Registrar and Mrs. Pilcher held a reception until g o’clock, when a musical programme and entertainment followed. A cordial vote of thanks was passed to Mr.Marlow, Assistant Secretary, and the staff, for their assistance in the arrangements. The contributions received for the presentation to the Registrar amounted to over E400, and were expended mainly on dining room furniture-a set of Chippendale chairs, easy chairs and a settee in hide; together with a carpet, and a chiming clock; a silver tray, tea and coffee service, spoons and forks; binding of Journals, and repairing of books. 91 The President’s Address. EACHsuccessive Annual Meeting brings with it the sad duty of referring to the gaps in our ranks which have been notified in the course of the preceding twelvemonth, and before commenting on the work of the Council, I desire to pay a tribute, however inadequate, to the memory of some of our late members, whose names are indelibly inscribed in our annals.Of those who have been most closely associated with the activities of the Institute, I would refer especially to Sir George Beilby, Sir James Dobbie, and Mr. Otto Hehner. It would be difficult, I think, to name three Fellows who in their several spheres of work-industry, academic and official chemistry, and consulting chemistry respectively-have done more for chemists and their science. Sir George Beilby, after serving as a Member of the Council and a Vice-president, held the office of President of the Institute from 1909-1912. A perusal of the history of the Institute gives some idea, and yet inevitably a very imperfect one, of his en- thusiasm for the well-being of all branches of the profession; while the records of his scientific achievements show him to have been a great master in those branches of work which he made particularly his own.To recall the man--apart from his science -is, for those who knew him well, to revive memories of a very remarkable personality, combining the highest ideals and intellectual attainments with unusual capacity for affairs, and with a sincere satisfaction in exercising in unstinted measure the power of doing good, which his successful life conferred on him. The extent of his benevolence will never be known; for he was modest to a fault. The value of his great service to the country -given ireely, and with extraordinary self-sacrifice--throughout the war, and during the last’years of his life, is not yet fully realised; but I am convinced that his efforts will produce results of far-reaching importance, and that his name will be held in honoured memory in the annals of our science.You will be glad to hear that the Council has communicated with the Society of Chemical Industry and the Institute of Metals-two other bodies of which he was Past-President-with the object of establishing some fitting memorial in his honour. Sir James Dobbie, who also had served the Institute faithfully and well before his election to the Presidential chair, occupied that position throughout the most strenuous part of the war. when the activities of the Institute, and consequently the work of the Council, imposed on him a burden which only those who worked with him could readily appreciate.I would remind you that during that period, in addition to the enrolment of chemists for the service of the country, the further organisation of the profession of chemistry within the Institute was then inaugurated and developed. Sir James, who had already achieved great success as a teacher and organiser, became Principal of the Government Laboratories in 1909,which, two years later, were constituted an independent department with a separate Parlia- mentary vote entitled "Government Chemist." This in itself was an advance in the recognition of the importance of chemistry in the affairs of the country, and there can be no doubt that this advance was in no small measure due to his personal influence, and the high esteem in which he was held by the Government.The deaths of Sir James Dobbie and Sir George Beilby affected me very deeply, for I was happy in recalling many years of friendship with each of them, and to each I owed a heavy debt of gratitude; to the former for his wise counsel and constant help in my student days, and to the latter for the un- failing encouragement which he extended during the years when we were associated in the Royal Technical College of Glasgow. Mr. Otto Hehner-many times a member of Council, a past-Censor, a past-Examiner, and a Vice-president for three full periods -achieved a world-wide reputation for his investigations in the chemistry of food and drugs. Coming to this country over fifty years ago, he speedily became known and esteemed for his work, and for inany years was one of the leading con- sulting and analytical chemists in the land of his adoption, of which he became a most loyal citizen.Perhaps it would not be too much to say that no chemist engaged in that branch of work had more endeared himself to his fellow-practitioners by reason both of his attractive and interesting personality and of his profound knowledge, which he was ever ready to impart to others. The limits of a brief address do not permit me to refer indi- vidually, as I should like, to the other Fellows whose loss we have to deplore, for there were among them not a few whose records (already printed in our Journal) show them to have been eminent in their profession; but I must conclude my remarks under this heading with a brief reference to Professor George Downing Liveing.93 In Professor Liveing we had indeed a link with the past. He died within three years of the age of 100,and thus was for a considerable period “ the father of British chemistry.” For 47 years he held the chair at Cambridge, after having obtained first place in the first examination for the Natural Science Tripos in 1851. He is said to have been the first to teach science experi- mentally at Cambridge, and may also be said to have laid the foundations for that great school of our science which has since been developed under Professor Sir William Pope.He will be remembered chiefly for his work on spectroscopy, in which he was associated with Sir James Dewar, and for which he received the Davy Medal in 1879. The past year has been one of quiet and steady progress rather than of any striking developments, so far as the Institute is concerned. The statistics relating to the roll of Membership speak for themselves, and the Treasurer has already dealt with the financial statements. Perhaps the rate of increase in mem- bership has been maintained beyond our anticipations, seeing that it is now over six years since the end of the war and that the abnormal influxof chemical students, which then set in, has abated. The process of organising the profession under the Institute is steadily proceeding, but it must not be supposed that the Nominations Committee and the Council are not giving every care to the scrutiny of the applications which come before them, or that the interests of existing members are not fully safe- guarded with the present constitution of the Council, under which all branches of the profession and all districts and sections are adequately represented.Our finances are sound, but on investigation it will be found that we have not had a greater margin of income over expendi- ture than any institution ought to have, if it is determined to do its duty to its members and to its sister institutions. Moreover, I would venture to suggest that to a great professional institution, with great responsibilities, the possession of funds for emer-gencies may be at any time of the utmost consequence.Our reserves are not remarkably substantial, and, even bringing into account the legacy of about jtT4800, which we are to receive under the will of the late Sir Alexander Pedler, and for which we are deeply grateful, will not compare very favourably with those of many other chartered professional bodies of similar standing. Still, I am glad to say that, thanks to the care of our past and present Treasurers, to whom we are profoundly indebted for 94 their unsparing efforts on our behalf, the position is not by any means unsatisfactory. The Report shows that the activities of the Council, of the Committees, and of the representatives and delegates of the Institute have been as extensive as usual, and I am glad to have this opportunity of pointing out that only those who have taken part in the work of the Council can realise how heavy are the demands of the Institute on their time and labour.It is un- necessary to refer to the work of each Committee individually, but I can assure the Fellows and Associates that they have all dealt with the matters submitted to them promptly and in the best interests of the Institute. Much of the work, for instance, of the Nominations, Examinations and Institutions Committee might be regarded as mere routine, but on the contrary, it is exacting, arduous and responsible. Further, as the Regulations for the degrees of Universities are apt to be altered, this Com- mittee must have an eye to the relation of such degrees to the Associateship of the Institute.It is clear, therefore, that the necessity of revising the Regulations must arise fairly frequently, and we have to record our indebtedness to the Sub-Committee who took the matter in hand during the past year. Within the last few years the number and variety of degrees in Applied Chemistry have considerably increased, and the Nominations and Examinations Committee has not infrequently found difficulty in coming to a decision with regard to the acceptability of such degrees as evidence of the training in Chemistry required by the Regulations of the Institute. In the circumstances it appeared desirable to the Council to hold a meeting with teachers of both pure and applied Chemistry in order that the question might receive full consideration.A gratifying response was given to an invitation issued by the Council, and at the Confer- ence held on January 3oth, a large number of eminent teachers contributed statements which will receive the most careful consideration-all the more so because the various opinions expressed were not by any means all in agreement. We are deeply indebted to the Salters’ Company for their courtesy in placing the Salters’ Hall at our disposal for the Conference, as also for the hospitality which they so cordially extended to us. You are aware that the Institute is frequently invited to appoint delegates and representatives to participate in enquiries of public concern.We welcome such invitations, and are glad to render any possible service we can to the commonweal; but 96 I am sure that I voice the opinion of the Council in saying how sincerely 1regret that we have found it necessary to express in the Report a mild protest that provision cannot be made to lighten the sacrifice of time and funds which the duties entrusted to our delegates entail. I know that the Council is very diffident about asking a Fellow who may be resident, say, at Liverpool or Manchester, to attend a Government Committee, at his own expense and without any emolument, several times a year. It is supposed in high places that a man of science will willingly make such sacrifice for the honour of giving his services, and the recognition thus accorded him, but it must be remembered that only those who have already achieved a reputation in the subject of the enquiry are likely to be selected as representatives, and, however eminent they may be, few can afford, in these times, to leave their work and bear the expense of travelling which such duties may involve.These considerations lead me to refer to the alleged attitude of those in Government authority towards scientific and technical civil servants, which was the subject of correspondence with the late Prime Minister-Mr. Ramsay MacDonald-which has been published in our Journal. It was also a feature of an address by the late president of the Board of Trade-Mr. Sidney Webb- at the Conference of the British Science Guild held at Wembley in July.Advocating “lay administration tempered by expert advice,” he said : ‘‘I want the layman at the top; I do not want the expert at the top. I want the expert to be there, and I want him to have full scope, and to be always suggesting, and helping, and criticising, but on the whole, at any rate in a democracy, you have to leave the control of policy and the ultimate word to the layman . . . .” and much more in the same strain. Again, we find Mr. Short, the late Home Secretary, telling a body of accountancy students that the accountant is far more important in the affairs of business than the engineer or the chemist. The utterances of these two former Ministers justify the action taken by the Presidents of the Professional Scientific and Technical Chartered Institutions, and we must employ every means possible to refute their doctrine, which is based on the ridiculous assumption that while the mental faculties of men of science are commonly acknowledged to be above the normal standard, their range of view is restricted.Perhaps chemists and other men of science are given too few 96 opportunities of showing what they can do in the direction of administration, but it would not be difficult to give instances of scientific men who were, or are, acknowledged to be highly satisfactory administrators. In industry we have many ex-amples of chemists who have risen to the control of huge interests, and have done well; whilst on the other hand no less important interests have suffered in the hands of organisers devoid of a knowledge of science.It is my firm belief that chemists will come more and more to occupy the highest positions in concerns where their science is the main factor underlying the operations involved. We need, however, to take every possible step to ensure the supply of chemists who are likely to develop as good men of affairs. It is evident also, when men of sufficient prorni- nence to become members of a Government show by their public utterances such clamant need of education, that we must con- tinue and intensify our campaign towards enlightening our fellow citizens with respect to the fundamental importance to the commonweal of the part played by the chemist. Every chemist knows that the prosperity of the country is ultimately dependent upon progress in science, and very specially in chemistry, but the great majority of our fellow-citizens are sublimely ignorant of this fact, and for the nation’s sake we must strive to bring the truth to light.I have for long maintained that one of the best methods of achieving this aim is to enlist the sympathy and support of that great potential instrument of education, the public press, and I am proud to feel that in my own city we have set an example in this direction which might be followed with great advantage in other parts of the country. The Local Sections have shown most gratifying activity during the past year, not only in promoting intercourse between the members resident in the different districts, but also in for- warding suggestions to the Council and frank criticisms of the Council’s decisions. Both are heartily welcomed, but in my opinion criticism should be constructive rather than destructive in form, if its aim is to assist rather than to obstruct.The sectional meetings have been generally well attended throughout the country, and many excellent addresses and papers on matters of interest to chemists have been submitted. Of these, Mr. Chaston Chapman’s talks to students on “Some Factors which make for Success in Chemical Practice,” Mr. Griffith Brewer’s paper on “Practice under the Modern Patent Law,” Mr. F. E. Hamer’s paper on “The Chemist in Relation to 97 Public Life,” Professor Armstrong’s address on “The Education of the Chemist,” and Mr.G. S. W. Marlow’s lectures on “Con- tracts of Service,” have been fully reported in the Journal. A notable event of last year was the visit of more than 300 Registered Students from all parts of the country to the British Empire Exhibition. The visit was organised by Mr. Marlow under the auspices of the London Students’ Association, and under the kindly leadership of Mr. Woolcock, gave our students an exceptional opportunity of realising the achievements of British Chemistry. The cordial thanks of the Institute are due to both Mr. Woolcock and Mr. Marlow for their contributions to the success of this meeting.I have had the pleasure of attending meetings, both social and more severe, of several of the Sections, and am confirmed in the view that the establishment of the Sections has aided in a remarkable manner the development of greater enthusiasm for our profession, greater interest in its traditions, and a better sense of its potentialities. It has been a great satisfaction to find everywhere so much friendly association with local organisa- tions of other societies, because I am convinced that such joint meetings do very much to promote the cultivation of that pro- fessional spirit which must exist among the members of any profession which claims a leading position. Moreover, this local co-operation augurs well for the attainment of still closer co- operation between the great Societies themselves, the desire for which is, I am assured, steadily becoming more pronounced, if only as a step towards that unification of ouY profession which is our ideal.Schemes for the attainment of this end have not yet developed into concrete proposals, and undoubtedly many difficulties have to be overcome; but I am certain that at least the great majority of chemists feel that something ought to be done, and I believe also that the great majority would agree in thinking that the first step should be the acquisition of central headquarters for all the Societies and Institutions associated with Chemistry. As one of its chief functions is the promotion of the welfare of our profession, the Institute is bound to take a sympathetic interest in any movement which promises to assist its efforts in this direction; but if and when it is thought that the Institute should participate in any scheme of co-operation in a build- ing, no action will be taken without the consent of the whole body of members in accordance with the requirements of the Charter.The suggestion has been made that the Council should 98 approach Parliament in the hope of inducing the Government to initiate legislation with the object of establishing a system of government registration of chemists. In my judgment the Council would not be justified in taking this step until the pro- ject, in all its bearings, had first of all been subjected to careful and critical examination and exhaustive discussion, and unless it received the support of at least the great majority of the members of our profession.Even a very cursory consideration of the proposal impresses one with the difficulties with which it is surrounded. For instance, registration would imply restriction of the right to practise as a chemist, and would require precise definition of those qualifications which would entitle chemists to be registered. To what tribunal is the duty of assessing the qualifications of applicants for registration to be delegated? Is this restriction to apply to all chemists, whatever branch of the profession-consulting, analytical, industrial, research, teaching -they may pursue for a livelihood? If not, where is the line to be drawn, and on what kinds or classes of chemists is the restriction to be imposed? Again, is a chemist to be prevented from earning his living in the practice of his profession because his qualifications are not sufficiently high to entitle him to registration ? As regards registration, the relation of our pro- fession to the public is different from that of medicine or of pharmacy, and I for one would not welcome legislation which would have the effect of restricting the freedom of any man to practise any profession or craft in which he can prove himself able to earn an honest living without hurt to his fellow-citizens.In this matter I am expressing a personal opinion, and am quite open to conviction, but my feeling is that the question of govern- ment registration of chemists is not at present within the sphere of practical politics.I desire to direct the special attention of my fellow-members to the appeal recently issued by the Benevolent Fund Committee, for I feel sure that if they call to mind that the Benevolent Fund is the Institute’s memorial of those of our members who gave up their lives in the defence of civilization, and if they realise the value of the assistance given to some of our brother chemists, even with the limited amount at our disposal, the response to that appeal will be not only encouraging, but generous. An event which cannot be passed over without notice is that at this meeting Mr. Richard Bertram Pilcher, O.B.E., completes a service to the Institute of thirty years as Secretary, and 99 twenty-five yearsas Registrar.During the wholeof this long period he has devoted himself to the duties of his important office with a zeal, a loyalty, and an efficiency which are beyond praise. Only those members who have served in the Council can fully appre- ciate his manifold activities and his business capacity, but many others, and especially many of our younger members, have benefited by his kindly help and by the information and advice which he has always been ready to place at their disposal. Feeling as they do that his services have been simply invaluable, the Council have invited the members to join in offering to Mr. Pilcher some tangible recognition of his work for the Institute, which has indeed been the work of his life, and I rejoice to inform you that a very large number has seized this opportunity of expressing their regard for him.I hope that for many years to come he will continue to adorn the office which his personality and his enthusiasm have made so important. The Council has accepted with regret the resignation of Mr. Marlow, the Assistant Secretary, consequent upon his appoint- ment to a post with the Association of British Chemical Manu- facturers. His services to the Institute have been of very great value, and, although reluctant to be deprived of them, I con-gratulate him on his well deserved promotion, and wish him all happiness and success in his new sphere of work.When a year ago you conferred upon me the signal honour of election to the presidential chair I promised to do my best to maintain the high traditions of the office. No one can realise so clearly as myself that, if I have met with any success in endeavouring to justify the confidence which you reposed in me, the chief credit must be given to the administrative staff, without whose constant and willing support and assistance I could have done very little. Mr. Pilcher, Mr. Marlow, Miss Cawston, and indeed all the members of the staff have vied with one another in their efforts to make my work not only easy, but enjoyable, and I find it difficult to express my gratitude in adequate terms. I am also deeply grateful to my colleagues in the Council for the kindly consideration which I have experienced at their hands, and very specially to the Chairmen of Committees, whose labours have so largely contributed to the fulfilment of our duty to the members. Unfortunately we are about to be deprived, tem-porarily at least, of the services of a number of valued members of the Council, and on your behalf I tender them cordial thanks for their devotion to the affairs of the Institute. Proceedings of the Council.FEBRUARY-MARCH, 1925. Council and Committees.-The names of the Officers, General and District Members of Council, and Censors, who came into office on March 2nd are given on pages 73-74. At the first meeting of the Council, held onJ13th March, the Standing and Special Committees and their Chairmen for the ensuing year were appointed (see pages 74-75).Board of Examiners, 1 925-26.-The Board of Examiners has been reconstituted, as on pages 75-76. The thanks of the Council have been accorded to the retiring examiners-Dr. 0. L. Brady, Prof. J. E. Coates, Dr. J. T. Dunn, Dr. Bernard Dyer, Dr. Arthur Harden, and Mr. Edward Hinks, for their services. Assistant Secretary.-Mr. G. Stanley W. Marlow having tendered his resignation from the appointment of Assistant Secretary of the Institute on accepting a position with the Association of British Chemical Manufacturers, the Council has placed on record its high appreciation of his valuable services to the Institute during the past six years. Mr. Ronald Leslie Collett, M.A.(Cantab.), F.I.C., has been appointed Assistant Secretary. He was educated at St. Paul’s School, London, at Trinity College, Cambridge, and King’s College, London. He passed the Intermediate Examina- tion of the Institute in 1909, and the Final Examination for the Associateship in the Chemistry of Food and Drugs in 1910; he was elected to the Fellowship in 1913. After five years practical experience as assistant to Mr. A. Chaston Chapman, he was on active service for four years with the Middlesex Regiment and the R.A.M.C. After the war he was for two years Chemist at the Royal Brewery, Brentford, and has since been Chemist and Bacteriologist with the British Leather Manufacturers’ Research Association. He was for three years Honorary Secretary of the London and South-Eastern Counties Section of the Institute and served for three years as a Member of Council.Northern I reland.-The Council has received from the Legal and Parliamentary Committee, and Public Appointments 101 Committee, acting jointly, a report on the Pharmacy and Poisons Bill, Northern Ireland, No. 32. The Bill had been referred to the Council by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Northern Ireland, and the views of the Belfast Section of the Institute had been invited thereon. Mr. William Honneyman, Honorary Secretary of the Section, kindly attended the joint meeting of the Committees. The Council submitted for the consideration of the Minister of Home Affairs the following recommendations :-(a) That the Institute of Chemistry should be represented on the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland and that such representative should be a Fellow of the Institute of Chemistryresident in Northern Ireland. (The Council of the Institute hopes that tho Council of the Phar- maceutical Society of Northern Ireland will concur in this proposal, having regard to the desirability of maintaining a good understanding between the professions of Pharmacy and Chemistry.) (b) That a clause be added prohibiting the use of the title “chemist” to persons or bodies corporate carrying on the business of pharmaceutical chemist, or generally to any person or body corporate carrying on the business of retailing drugs or medicines; and that it be further provided that nothing in the Act shall prevent the use of the title “chemist” by Fellows and Associates of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland engaged in the practice of analytical and consulting chemistry or the applications of chemistry to arts and manufactures or in the teaching of the science of chemistry.(It is desirable that the word “chemist” be protected for those who are trained in and practise the science of chemistry, and that it should not be assumed by herbalists, vendors of quack medicines, grocers, etc.) (c) With regard to section 26, paragraph 2, the Bill does not state what shall be done with samples taken under this clause or to whom they shall be submitted for analysis. It appears desirable, therefore, to amend it as follows :-“The Inspector and any person appointed or nominated for the pur- pose by the Ministry of Home Affairs, shall have in relation to all poisons and drugs, all the powers of purchasing samples for analysis as are conferred upon officers authorised to procure samples under the Sale of Food and Drugs Act, lS57-1907; he shall submit all such samples to the Public Analyst of the district or place wherein the samples are collected or if there be no such analyst then acting for such district or place then to the Public Analyst of another district or place, and shall receive from the Public Analyst a report upon the rosults of his analysis for a fee not less than one guinea.” (It appears to the Council of the Institute highly desirable that the drugs should not be limited to those mentioned in the British Pharmacopceia, and further that an agreed fee should be specified.In suggesting a feo of not less than one guinea the Council would remark that samples of poisons and drugs (taken singly) commonly entail more difficult, lengthy and expensive investigation than the average sample of foods taken under the Sale of Foods and Drugs Acts.) (d) The Council of the Institute and the Belfast Section approve of the principle of a third schedule of potent drugs being added to the 102 Rill, and the suggestion that the sale of such drugs should be restricted to registered persons. (e) With respect to the fourth schedule, the Council of the Institute a.dvise that definitions be provided for the words “Preparations” and “Admixtures.” The Committees also had before them copies of the precis of evidence submitted to the Departmental Commission on Local Government Administration in Northern Ireland on behalf of the Northern Ireland Section of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland, in accordance with the sanction given by the Council.The Committees have expressed their general approval of the evidence. The thanks of the Council have been accorded to the Belfast Section for its services in connection with the representations made to the Ministry of Home Affairs and to the Departmental Commission on Local Government Administration in Northern Ireland, and also to Mr.William Honneyman for his attendance at the joint meeting of the Committees and his valuable assistance. Association of Teachers in Technical Schools.--On the 27th February, Dr. R. H. Pickard and Professor Arthur Smithells, Vice-president, represented the Institute at a Conference of Teachers in Technical Institutions on the relation- ship of technical education to other branches of education and to industry. Lord Emmott, who presided, intimated that it was felt that technical and art education needed not only a new correlation to other branches of education, but also a close enquiry to see whether it could itself be improved in aim and content. Technical education had ceased to be purely vocational. It had been gradually liberalised and humanised, but these two tendencies caused overlapping, which needed earnest consideration if the best result from each was to be secured.Mr. J. Wickham Murray, Secretary of the Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions, said that the representatives of other bodies who attended the meeting were not asked to commit their societies, but they had been invited to hear the views which would be expressed, and then to recommend their respective bodies to encourage the enquiry, or to say that it was not necessary. Mr. Murray outlined the main points which called for enquiry, and a discussion followed in which several of the representatives, including Professor Smithells, took part. 103 A resolution was passed in favour of holding an enquiry into the relationship of technical and art education to other forms of education and to industry and commerce, and it was decided to invite representatives to form a Committee to collect evidence in reference to the suggested enquiry.Public Analysts-The Councils of the Institute and of the Society of Public Analysts recently protested against the terms offered for the appointment of a Public Analyst for a metropolitan borough. In a joint letter to the local authority it was pointed out that the average fee per sample for appoint- ments for which the number of samples in 1921 exceeded IOO was 14s. 8d., whereas only 10s. 6d. per sample was offered by the borough in question. Public Analysts were informed of the circumstances, but several candidates offered themselves.Three applicants were selected, one of whom withdrew on learning that no revision of the terms could be entertained. It is under-stood that the candidate appointed has the use of a laboratory provided by another borough. The Council has requested the Public Appointments Committee to reconsider the procedure adopted in addressing local authorities on appointments of public analysts, and to review the general question. Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs.-In the Report of Council (JOURNAL, Part I., p. 14)reference was made to the letter addressed by the Council to the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries on the constitution of the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Advisory Committee. The Ministry replied that the committee was con- cerned with formulating preliminary proposals as a basis for discussion and had intended when these proposals had taken shape to circulate the draft to a number of Associations interested in the matter and to ask for observations; further, to invite representatives of various interests to canfer with them, when it was expected that Mr.F. W. F. Arnaud, Official Agricultural Analyst for the County of Kent, would be among those who would be asked to consult with the committee with regard to the schedule which is being drafted. Copies of a Memorandum regarding draft schedules to the proposed Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Bill have since been received from the Ministry and have been referred to the Public Appointments Committee of the Institute for consideration and report .104 Gas Works Management-The Glasgow and West of Scotland section recently directed the attention of the Council to an advertisement by the Corporation of Glasgow for a Manager of the Chemical Works in connection with the Gas Department of the Corporation. The Committee of the Section suggested that the Council should write to the Corporation to the effect that in future advertisements of this character it would be desirable that a minimum salary should be stated for such appointments. The Council concurred and communicated with the Town Clerk on the lines suggested. Journal and Proceedings.-Letters have been received on the subject of the publication in the Journal and Proceedings of a paper read recently before a Local Section. The Council cannot accept responsibility for the opinions expressed by lecturers, and publication does not signify endorsement of those opinions.Lectures will not be published, however, without the concurrence of the Publications Committee. Teaching of Applied Chemistry.-The Report of the Conference on the Teaching of Applied Chemistry is under the consideration of the Nominations, Examinations and Institutions Committee, whose recommendations thereon will shortly be before the Council. Sewage Analyses.-Dr. George McGowan and Mr. S. E. Melling, representatives of the Institute at a Conference sum- moned by the Ministry of Health to consider proposed methods of analysis of sewage and sewage effluents, report that a Sub-Committee of the Conference has been formed.The sub-committee will consider methods for carrying out tests of sewage and effluents and how the results should be expressed; also whether it is desirable to include certain tests in all analyses, and, if so, which tests. The sub-committee will also consider tests for use at small sewage works. The Late H. J. Bailey.-At the request of the Council, Sir William Willcox inquired into the circumstances attending the death of Mr. H. J. Bailey, an Inspector under the Alkali, etc., Works Regulations Act. On Sir William's report, the Treasury has granted a pension to Mrs. Bailey, and has made certain awards to two of her children. The special thanks of the Council have been accorded to Sir William Willcox for his kind interest and help in the matter.105 Local Sections. Belfast,-Delegates of the Section appeared to give evidence before the Departmental Commission on Local Government Administration in Northern Ireland on 4th March. Prof. G. S. Robertson, Chairman of the Section, gave an explanatory statement, with details of the membership and status of the Institute, emphasising the fact that public analysts were almost invariably Fellows of the Institute, specially examined in the Chemistry and Microscopy of Food and Drugs, Therapeutics, Pharmacology and Microscopy. Mr. R. F. Blake, Public Analyst for the County of Tyrone, and Medicine Analyst to Belfast and other unions, gave evidence on the Medical Charities Act, showing that the present rate of remuneration for analyses of medicines and drugs in Northern Ireland was inadequate. Some Boards sent very few samples, and they in effect paid for those who send too many.Mr. Blake advocated a uniform rate of remuneration fixed by the Ministry; a retaining fee should be paid with an agreed fee per sample. He suggested the appointment of a permanent official at the Ministry to regulate the taking of samples of drugs in order to afford unnecessary duplication of analyses, and urged that milk and water supplies should be tested regularly in the interests of the public health. Dr. J. Hawthorne, Public Analyst for the County of Down and the City of Derry, gave evidence on the administration of the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act and the Sale of Food and Drugs Act.Previously the Local Government Board, Dublin, had taken informal samples which were analysed at a central laboratory. When adulteration was suspected a formal sample was sent to the County Analyst, who had very little work to do for his nominal salary. The Northern Government had put the Act into force. Payment in some cases was quite inadequate; he considered one guinea a sample a fair fee. He supported Mr. Blake’s suggestion of the appointment of a permanent official at the Ministry,-a Fellow of the Institute having a pharmaceutical qualification could deal both with 106 these Acts and the Pharmacy Acts; but he was informed that the latter question had been dealt with.With regard to sampling under the Sale of Foods and Drugs Acts, Dr. Hawthorne having suggested the appointment of an additional inspector, a member of the Commission said that the Ministry of Agriculture officials looked after the interests of the producer, the Ministry of Home Affairs those of the con- sumer; the Inspector would have to be an official of both Ministries. Dr. Hawthorne thought that a knowledge of procedure of the Acts and common sense were the essential qualifications; he quoted figures showing that, where the Police sampled in country districts, about 5 per cent. of the samples were adulterated, while in towns having special Inspectors about 10per cent. were adulterated.At this point a member suggested that it was not really necessary to take so many samples of manufactured foods in country districts, since they came from the towns. A short discussion then followed on the adulteration of butter and the use of preservatives in cream. Prof. Robertson dealt with the Sale of Milk Regulations, showing that where cows were milked twice daily, at sixteen and eight hour intervals, in order to supply a town at times required by the consumer, the morning milk was liable to fall as low as 2.5 per cent. of fat, or lower, the evening milk being 4 per cent. or higher, while the average gave over 3 per cent. of fat as required by the regulations. It was inequitable to brand a farmer as a criminal in consequence of his milk falling below the standard in such circumstances.It was difficult to prove that milk was supplied as given by the cow. The Section did not give the force of a recommendation, but offered the suggestion for consideration, that the sale of milk in a locality be made a civil contract. In the event of milk not being of the specified standard it would be open to the local authority to sue for damages. If actual watering were proved to have taken place, a criminal prosecution could be instituted as at present. Legal difficulties might no doubt be encountered, but something should be done to end the present unsatisfactory state of affairs. The Chairman thanked the delegates for their evidence and mentioned that witnesses, on behalf of the medical profession, who gave evidence in the previous week, had suggested the establishment of a central laboratory for pathological work.107 He suggested that public analytical work might be conducted in the same place, but the delegates opposed this suggestion on the ground that it would be more expensive than the present system, and that no protection on .appeal would be provided for the vendors. At a meeting of the Section, held on 26th February, in the Biology Lecture Theatre of Queen’s University, Mr. A. Percy Hoskins presiding, a lecture was given by Mr. C. R. Nodder on ‘‘Some interesting Problems in Stereochemistry.” On 26th March, in the Chemical Lecture Theatre of Queen’s University, Prof. G. Scott Robertson in the chair, a discussion was opened by Dr.W. H. Gibson on “The Union of Chemical Societies.” Dr. Gibson said that there were too many societies; they had become an incubus to the average chemist, who was anything but a plutocrat. He thought that the main reason that absorp- tion of the smaller societies into the larger ones did not take place was that everything was left in the hands of the officers of the societies. What was wanted was a strong party within the membership of all the societies ready to fight elections for officers solely on the question of union. The insuperable difficulty that faced the officers of all societies at the present time was that they could not, in the absence of a direct mandate, take the steps which would lead to the absorption of their societies in a larger one: this mandate would have to come from the rank and file of chemists before anything could be done.He outlined, as a basis for discussion, a policy which he thought would meet with considerable support, especially in the provinces. The general objects for which chemical societies existed were (a) To promote the study of chemistry. (b) To widen the scope of its application. (c) To obtain general appreciation of its value in modern life. (d) To consolidate and improve the position of the pro- fessional chemist as an essential element in the national life. At present the societies failed to attain those objects because they were too self-centred; they were societies of chemists for chemists, and took no heed of the outside world; they must endeavour to modify that attitude and include propaganda 108 amongst their organised activities.With these objects in mind, he had come to the conclusion that chemistry and thechemical profession needed two societies-separate, but yet closely associated with each other. For the first of these, the Chemical Society could be the nucleus, admitting to membership any one sufficiently interested in chemistry. Its objects would be to promote discussion of chemical papers, to issue chemical publi- cations, to impart information on chemical subjects to the general public and to promote intercourse between chemists and the general public. The second body would confine its membership to qualified professional chemists, and would deal with all matters pertaining to the profession.The Institute of Chemistry was best able to perform that function. Both bodies should be decentralised. At present both had headquarters in London, and, under present conditions, were run mainly by London members. Assuming that the two Societies ran in close collaboration, he would like to see branches of each Society in about twenty different centres. They would need joint local offices and paid secretaries, a chemical library in each office, and suitable rooms for meetings and lectures. If the accommodation might be shared by other bodies, such as the Pharmaceutical Society, so much the better. Regarding the functions of the Chemical Society, he thought that any chemist was entitled to put the results of his work before his fellow chemists; so he proposed a different mode of dealing with papers sent in for publication.On receipt of a paper at headquarters it should be registered and a number of copies made. These copies should be sent to each local centre to lie on the table. At the instance of the local committee or of any local member the paper could be discussed at a subsequent meeting of the local centre; the comments would then be forwarded to headquarters and thence to the author of the paper. In this way the paper would be judged by the profession as a whole, and the Publications Committee would only have to act on the verdict. The next point was the procedure of publication.Chemists wanted better abstracts at the earliest possible moment. The Chemical Society required an abstract not exceeding 250 words to accompany each paper. He believed that an international arrangement might be made whereby abstracts of this length could be interchanged between different national societies. In this way, world-wide publication of abstracts of papers might 109 be obtained before the actual appearance of the papers in full. These abstracts should be published at least monthly, including British and foreign abstracts. Each member would have in his abstracts a summary of the papers at his local centre. This would facilitate criticism. Abstracts should be classified under the thirty headings in Chemical Abstracts, the A.C.S.publication, and publication of papers in full postponed until the end of the year. At the local centres popular lectures would be provided and the best of these would be edited and issued as an annual publication. Each local centre should constitute an active medium for propaganda. With regard to the Institute of Chemistry, he thought that headquarters did not yet regard local sections in the proper light. He disliked the word “section”-it meant a part cut off-and that was exactly what they did not want to be. The word “branch ” expressed a portion of the whole and implied that their activities were of vital importance to the whole organisation. The wrong attitude was taken towards District Members of Council: they were supposed to be able to attend meetings in Londofi, but it was really almost impossible for a provincial member to do so.Their most useful function was as local ambassadors ;the Institute would be strengthened by developing local organisation on that idea. If it were thought that a District Member of Council was not to be trusted to act alone, a second member might be elected, by the whole body of members, to work with him. If the Institute would pay more attention to local organisation on the lines he suggested there would be nothing much wrong with the Institute. Only the local men knew what local conditions were like. The greater vigour displayed by the Benevolent Fund was an advantage to the Institute, but he felt that it might promote activities on the lines of a benefit society to help any chemists not only to obtain appointments, but to provide ascheme for supplying for acquiring houses, etc.The Chairman then called upon Mr. Marlow, the Assistant Secretary, who congratulated Dr. Gibson on his contribution. His own view was that, in any movement towards co-operation, care should be taken to ensure that none of the societies should feel that it was losing its identity; his idea was a confederation, maintaining intact the prestige and associations of the individual societies, but ultimately becoming fused into one. The present Federal Council could be used to co-ordinate the units, but in 110 the first place the societies must be brought physically together.The first move, therefore, should be to secure a co-operative building-Chemistry House. Local chemical headquarters could be considered subsequently. He advocated keeping the Library and Club outside the building scheme, since they would add greatly to the capital cost, without yielding a financial return. The Chemical Society’s premises were not subject to rent, and they could not afford to give up this very real asset. The Institute had its own building and provided them with ideas as to the scale on which they should think. The proposed new central building would have to be spacious enough for future expansion, and for this reason he advocated the formation of a separate company, which would be run as a business concern, part of the accommodation being let for profit.The Chemical Societies themselves would pay ,rent, and provision would be made for the profits of the company to be allocated in part as grants to the Societies. Mr. Totton preferred Dr. Gibson’s concrete proposals. Although he had not specifically studied the question, he felt that it was of paramount importance. Everything turned upon Members of Council really representing their constituents, and if they failed to do that it was justifiable to criticise. Dr. Still did not see the need of two societies; after all, they were all chemists, and should be capable of fusion into one body. He commented favourably Dr. Gibson on his publication scheme. Mr. Honneyman was not satisfied that Chemistry House would effect the saving that Mr. Marlow prophesied.He foresaw the creation of an army of correlating clerks, costing more to co-ordinate the activities of all these societies than the saving which centralisation effected, He would take the oldest body, the Chemical Society, as a basis, and bring everyone into it; all would be members, qualified and unqualified. It would have a branch containing all the qualified members- a professional branch undertaking the work of the Institute ; the Society of Chemical Industry in part; Public Analysts; academical chemists, etc. One activity which Chemistry House might achieve, and he had not seen it advocated, would be to obtain a transmitting licence and to broadcast lectures.In this way members everywhere would be able to listen to discussions at headquarters, and to some extent the reproach would be removed that the societies were being run for London members. 111 Mr. Hoskins wanted a single society. He discussed the qualification difficulty. University qualifications were excellent , but were not the equivalent of industrial experience; the Institute had in the past given the necessary qualification. Dr. Hawthorne felt that union was an urgent necessity. He was much in favour of the publications scheme which Dr. Gibson had suggested. The Chairman, Prof. Scott Robertson, summarised the points raised in the discussion. He pointed out that provincial universi- ties had existing libraries. He would like to see a scheme whereby the societies would use and assist these libraries.The discussion had been illuminating, and he hoped the matter would not rest there, but would result in action being taken. Mr. Marlow, replying to the discussion, said that members had expressed the view that too much attention was being paid to the feelings of loyalty to individual societies, and too much regard to historical associations. Most of those present were already members of many societies , and considered themselves rather as chemists than as members of any individual society. It must, however, be remembered that the Councils of the various bodies regarded themselves as in the position of Boards of Directors protecting the interests of their individual members.They must not lose sight of the real feeling of responsibility these members had. Dr. Gibson, replying to the discussion, said that loyalty to a society could be overdone; the body of chemists as a whole had first claim on our loyalty since each society was made up of a group of chemists. It must be realised by all that the interests of the whole must be substituted for the prejudices of the individual societies. He regarded the various societies as the property of the whole body of chemists supporting them, and agreed with Mr. Marlow that the assets of each society should be considered, but with the object of retaining the more useful assets and realising the remainder. He referred again to his proposals for the formation of a Benefit Society.Dr. Hawthorne then proposed the following resolution, seconded by Mr. Hoskins: “That this meeting of the Belfast Section urges the Council to enter into collaboration with all other societies interested in chemistry, and to formulate and press forward a scheme for the amalgamation of all these societies into one body.” The resolution was passed unanimously. 112 Birmingham and Midland.-A meeting of the Section was held at Birmingham on 23rd February, Prof. G. T. Morgan, the chairman, presiding, when Mr. G. S. W. Marlow, Assistant Secretary of the Institute, gave a short address on (‘Chemists’ Agreements.” An interesting discussion followed, and Mr. Marlow replied to numerous questions raised. A vote of thanks was proposed by Mr.F. H. Alcock and seconded by Mr. S. A, Brazier. On 24th March a meeting was held at the Midland Hotel, Derby, this being the first occasion on which the Section had met away from Birmingham. Prof. G. T. Morgan occupied the chair, and the Registrar and Secretary of the Institute delivered a lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature,” illustrated with lantern slides. In proposing a vote of thanks to the lecturer, Mr. C. E. Pool expressed the hope that at 1ea.t one meeting of the Section,might be held at Derby each year. The Hon. Secretary indicated that increased support of the Section would be necessary from the Nottingham and Derby districts, as very few members in that district had so far joined the local Section. New Fellows and Associates were presented with certificates at both of the above meetings: nine were welcomed in Birmingham and eight at Derby.Bristol and South-Western.-The Fifth Annual General Meeting of the Section was held in the Chemical Department of Bristol University, on 26th March, Mr. C. J. Waterfdl in the Chair. The Hon. Secretary’s report showed that during the year the Section had held eight meetings, five of which and the Annual Dinner had been held jointly with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry. The Dinner had also been attended by local members of the Chemical Society. The membership of the Section had slightly increased, and the financial statement showed a balance in hand.Sir Ernest H. Cook and Dr. G. H. Christie were elected to fill the vacancies on the Committee, caused by the retirement by rotation of Mr. C. J. Waterfall and Mr. W. A. Storey; Mr. E. Lewis and Mr. F. H. C. Bull were re-appointed auditors and received the thanks of the Section for their past services. Votes of thanks were also passed to the retiring Chairman for his services and to the University authorities, for the use of room. 113 Various matters referred by the Council of the hstitute and other Local Sections were considered and decisions taken thereon. At a meeting of the Committee held subsequently, Sir Ernest Cook was elected Chairman of the Section. In making arrange- ments for the next session, the Section will co-operate with the Bristol Section of the Society of Chemical lndustry and hold joint meetings from October to February. It is hoped to arrange a meeting at Exeter during the winter and also a visit to works.Cape of Good Hope -The Council has sanctioned the formation of a Section to be known as the Cape Section of the Institute of Chemistry. Glasgow and West of Scotland.-In February the Section directed the attention of the Council to an advertisement by the Corporation of Glasgow for a manager of the Chemical Works in connection with the Gas Department, and suggested that the Council should write to the Corporation to the effect that in future advertisements for professional technical services a minimum salary should be stated for such appointments.The suggestion was adopted. The final meeting for the session took the form of a joint smoker with the local section of the Society of Chemical Industry, the Andersonian Chemical Society, the Glasgow University Alchemists' Club, and the Ardeer Chemical Club. There was a large attendance, and the meeting was very successful from every point of view. As a result of the Chairman's appeal on behalf of the Benevolent Fund, a sum of k25 10s. has been sent to head- quarters. This sum does not include subscriptions sent in by members before the appeal was launched. The Publicity Scheme has developed further afield, five lectures have been broadcasted from the Glasgow Station 5SC, four by Professor R. "I. Caven, and one by Mr. G. S. Ferrier.These have met with cordial approval, and other lectures have been arranged to be broadcast during the coming months. The success of this new effort is undoubtedly due to the popularity of the articles that have been appearing regularly now for over two years in the Glasgow Herald and elsewhere. Huddersfie1d.--A Meeting of the Section was held at the Queen Hotel, on 12th March, Dr. A. E. Everest in the Chair. One Associate received his certificate and was welcomed. 114 Prof. A. G. Perkin gave an account of some points of interest in connection with anthranols and the hydroxy-anthraquinones, describing some of his own work and that of his collaborators. A discussion followed, in which Mr. Tatum raised points of interest which were dealt with by Professor Perkin.Dr. Everest paid a tribute to Prof. Perkin’s work and emphasised what a privilege it was to hear a lecture from him. A hearty vote of thanks, proposed by Mr. Foster and seconded by the Secretary, was accorded to Prof. Perkin. On 20th March, at the Technical College, Prof. Gilbert T. Morgan gave an interesting address on “Recent Advances in Three-Dimensional Chemistry. ” Dr. H. H. Hodgson presided. Prof. Morgan commenced his survey of the subject from the work of Werner in 1911 on the cobaltammines, which demon- strated the possibility of resolving some oE these into enan- tiomorphs and so put the stereo-chemistry of these compounds on a firmbasis. Dealing with the compounds formed by replacing ammonia with ethylenediamine and oxalate groups, which the lecturer has named chelate groups, their octahedral symmetry was described and discussed with the help of models.Passing on to the metallic compounds of acetylacetone it was pointed out that the scandium, chromium and iron com- pounds have not been resolved into enantioaiorphs. Although in these cases there is a central metallic atom surrounded by three chelate groups, X-ray analysis has shown that the arrange- ment is not octahedral but in the form of a triangular prism. The application of the conception of chelate groups to the mordant dyes was developed in some detail and the structural arrangement illustrated by a series of lantern slides. At the conclusion, a hearty vote of thanks, proposed by Dr.Bruce and seconded by Mr. Gray, was accorded to Prof. Moxgan. Irish Free State.-A meeting of the Section was held on 24th March, in Trinity College, Dublin, Prof. W. E. Adeney in the chair, when Mr. G. S. W. Marlow delivered an address on “Chemical Appointments with some reference to Contracts of Service.’’ Mr. Marlow explained the manner in which the Appointments Register of the Institute could be utilised, and gave some hints to chemists with reference to application for appointments. He pointed out that most of the British Dominions were now well equipped with universities, and the natural tendency at the 115 present time was to employ graduates of these universities to fill such vacancies as occurred in the Dominions, consequently colonial appointments were not so easily obtained as in former years.He then dealt with certain legal points affecting contracts and suggested how by exercising tact a chemist might safeguard his interests when entering into a contract with a reputable firm. A short discussion followed, in which Mr. Fagan, Dr. Fearon, Mr. Mitchell, Mr. O’Farrelly and Mr. Andrews took part. A hearty vote of thanks was conveyed to Mr. Marlow for his interesting address. The chairman referred to the death of Mr. H. G. Becker, a former member of the Section, and a vote of sympathy to his relatives was passed in silence. After the meeting the members welcomed Mr. Marlow at an informal dinner at the Shelbourne Hotel, where a very pleasant evening was spent.Leeds Area.-Professor J. W. Cobb, Chairman of the Section, presided at an opening meeting held in the Chemical Lecture Theatre of the University of Leeds on 23rd March, when the Registrar gave his lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature,” illustrated by lantern slides. A vote of thanks was accorded to the Registrar on the motion of Dr. L. J,. Lloyd, seconded by Mr. Robert Gawler. At the conclusion of the meeting, several new Associates received their certificates from Professor Cobb. Liverpool and North-Western,-Mr. Alfred Smetham presided at a meeting of the Section held at St. George’s Restaurant on 12th February. Amongst other business, the Section decided to convey to the Council their opinion that it was desirable to hold a Conference of the Institute in 1925 and, later, recommended that the regulations for admission to the membership of the Institute should form one of the main subjects for discussion.Mr. H. J. Evans submitted a motion as follows:- “That the Council be urged to amend the regulations for admission of Fellows, so that except in the very rare cases of men of unquestionable eminence in the world of chemistry candidates can only pass to the Fellowship by examination, after having passed through the grade of Associateship.” 116 Mr. E. Gabriel Jones seconded the resolution, urging especially that the standard of the Fellowship should be carefully maintained. Mr. Evans, in submitting the motion, said that he was anxious to obtain the views of the Section in order that he might be able to present them at the proper time to the Council.If he could not convince them it was unlikely that he would be able to induce the Council to take any action. If the Section expressed itself favourable to his views he would be encouraged to carry them forward. He held that after a given date no Associate should be admitted to the Fellowship except by examination and that direct admission to the Fellowship should be discontinued. He compared the regulations in force prior to 1917with the present regulations, giving his views on the relative values then and now of the Associateship as a professional qualification. He maintained that as a general rule the Associate admitted before 1917was well able to hold his own in those subjects for which the Institute had given him certificates of competence after examination.He referred to the formation of the British Association of Chemists, and the conditions which gave rise to the change in policy whereby candidates with certain other qualifications were admitted to Associateship without further examination. He pointed out that the conditions involved a curriculum extending over four years instead of three; that one year had been added and the Intermediate Examination of the Institute eliminated. Most of the Universities insisted on a four years’ curriculum; so that he thought had the Intermediate Examination been retained under the previous system the Institute’s curriculum would have been increased to four years.That was the crux of the situation and he thought that at present the Associateship was the equiv- alent of the old Intermediate Examination. Referring to the Fellowship, he said, that under the old system the Associateship was the real qualification, the Fellowship merely an embellishment attainable on paying a fee after three years’ satisfactory practice. When the new conditions were determined, there was a definite understanding that the standard for the Fellowship would be rigorously maintained; that in effect all Associates before admission to the Fellowship would be required to pass an examination on the same lines as the old final examination for A.I.C. Exemption from that examina- tion was to be exceptional, but in the interpretation of the regulations figures for the last four years showed the reverse to be the rule.There were sufficient degrees given for research, and he thought that the F.I.C. should not be given for that work alone. He objected to permissive clauses in regulations. In his opinion the Fellowship should be worth the trouble and expense of taking the examination, but that the candidate should be allowed to take the examination as soon as he pleased after admission to the Associateship, although he could not actually be admitted until the three years registration required by the Charter had elapsed. Prior to 1917, the right of the Council to admit men of eminence to the Fellowship without examination was exercised with extra caution and restraint ; but his remarks with regard to the words “exceptional circum- stances” made in connection with the promotion of Associates to the Fellowship applied with equal force to elections to the Fellowship direct.Mr. Evans referred to the curious anomaly whereby the Council admitted to the Fellowship a man who had not fulfilled the regulations for the Associateship and he feared that the clause in the Charter which allowed this power to the Council was being worked beyond limit. He appealed for one standard only,-the candidate should be regularly initiated as a student, should receive instructions and guidance not only in chemical knowledge, but also in the ethics of his profession, pass through the grade of Associateship and finally be raised to that of Fellow, but only after he had given satisfactory proofs of his proficiency in the former grades by examination and not by influence, recommendation or any other means.Dr. Richard Thomas appreciated Mr. Evans’ paper: he was in hearty agreement with the ideals but not with his methods of achieving them. If the Council insisted on examination for the Fellowship a large number of able and desirable chemists would remain Associates. There were many who devoted themselves to the practical application of their science and became specialists, and, although they could not, perhaps, be classed as eminent, should certainly not be excluded from Fellow- ship.Examination in the usual sense of the term was not the only way of deciding such cases nor was it always the best way. He believed that the high level of the Fellowship could be maintained without invariably insisting on examination. In examining Mr. Evans’ proposals, he was forced to the conclusion that if adopted without qualification they would result in a 118 large body of capable and desirable chemists remaining outside the Institute, and would thus do more harm than good. Professor Baly said they were indebted to Mr. Evans for his thoughtful paper. The subject was of grave importance. Looking back on twenty years experience of examinations, he observed a general impression that when a man passed an examination with success he almost invariably formed the idea, as the years went by, that the standard of examination was falling lower.As a matter of fact the examinations now were much more difficult than they were in 1892. He reminded Mr. Evans that most of the applicants for membership had a University degree : the Universities had largely assumed the responsibility of failing the candidates instead of the Institute. His experience of serving on the Nominations, Examinations and Institutions Committee had convinced him that the investigations of the Committee were extraordinarily searching before a man was recommended for the Fellowship without examination. He thought Mr. Evans’ contentions were based upon his idea of the importance of analytical chemistry, but admitting that import- ance he pointed out that other branches of chemistry had grown so much during the last twenty years that the analytical sphere was a very small proportion of the chemistry of the present day.Skill in analytical practice was not the only test of a good chemist. They had to consider not only the qualifications based on analyti- cal work, but also those of men who by training in research were able to envisage the future of the fundamental theories of chemistry and to bear a hand in their advancement. Men of this type differed in their mental horizon from the expert analyst, and he questioned whether the Fellowship examination schedules were necessarily the best for such men. There is a period in a man’s life when he is ripe for passing examinations, a peculiarly receptive and responsive state which reaches its maximum at about the age of 25.After that period the research man follows lines which lead him away from the examination groove, and it is necessary to recognise this development. He had much sympathy with what Mr. Evans had said, but he pleaded for a broader outlook. He pointed out that some time had elapsed since the new policy of the Institute had come into being, and he felt that during this interval much experience had been gained as to its working. He suggested that the time had come for a review of the whole situation, so as to enable the Institute to determine whether the present regulations were the 119 best possible or whether some modification could be introduced with advantage.With these ideas in mind he moved as an amendment that the whole question be referred to the proposed conference of the Institute. Mr. E. T. Williams asked why a man with such distinctive research qualifications as our modern universities afford should concern himself about the Fellowship, for it seemed to him that the F.I.C. qualification should denote special attainment in certain directions rather than general eminence as a chemist. Professor Baly replied that he thought the Institute should represent the best of the profession and the highest idealism in chemistry, and that a good man was naturally ambitious to possess its hall-mark. Dr. Thomas seconded Professor Baly’s motion.Dr. Ramsay said that he felt that if the Institute followed Mr. Evans’ proposals very few would take the examination for the Fellowship, as he thought that a man of 27 was past exami- nation work. Mr. Shepherd congratulated Mr. Evans on the reception of his paper. Its importance might be illustrated by drawing attention to a booklet on Engineers and Chemists published by the League of Nations. This publication conveyed the impres- sion that those who were responsible for its compilation had in mind the pharmacist; there was no mention whatever of the Institute of Chemistry. If the standard for the Associateship was kept higher, he did not see why Associates should aspire to the Fellowship unless its distinct value was maintained. After further discussion in which Drs.Thomas and Doran and Prof. Baly participated, the amendment was put to the meeting and carried. At a general meeting of the Section, to which the members of other local scientific societies were invited, held in the Chemistry Theatre of the University on 12th March- Prof. W. H. Roberts presiding-Prof. E. C. C. Baly delivered an interesting address on “A Lecture Tour in America.” He referred to his visits to Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, Omaha, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Princeton, Colorado and Arizona. He mentioned prominent Americans-statesmen, university men, and members of the American Chemical Society -whom he had met, and dealt with the American universities and America as a country. He said that in the American there 120 was no false modesty: he would talk of his own work and the work of others in an absolutely irrepressible manner, and his criticism was very stimulative.The result was that he, Prof. Baly, had an extraordinarily exhilarating time, and began to feel that the work he was doing was worth while: but he had to live at high pressure. The American always expected a speech, whether at dinner, lunch, or any other function. One question put to him was “Can you speak on this? Can you give us any hope that a real entente between England and America is coming?” He asked why it was that he had been asked that question, and received the reply: “You know, education is controlled from Washington and by Irish-Americans, and there is no school book in which England is not declared to be the pirate of the world, the villain of the piece.’’ Within the last ten years, however, England had done three things which were big enough not only to change that idea but to discredit the Irish-American : the giving back to the South Africans their republic; the giving to Ireland Home Rule and a Constitution; and its actions since the war. Speaking of the American man of science, Prof.Baly said that he was keener in his search after truth than in anything. He paid a tribute to the great hospitality which he had received, mentioning numerous incidents that exemplified this. Coming to the American universities, their scope and con- ditions, he explained that there were two kinds of university in the United States-the State university and the private uni- versity.The State university was an attempt that had very nearly succeeded. He thought in a short while it would be successful in its main purpose. No American citizen need pay a single cent iinless he wished; he could go up to the very top of his university without paying a fee, although of course he would have to pay his living expenses. He, Prof. Baly, held that the university should not be open only to those who could afford to pay. He was struck with the vast number of students at- tending the universities: some had forty or fifty thousand students; but the amount of work thrown on the staff rendered it impossible for them to carry out the work, and their remunera- tion was ridiculously small. Students had to pass the univer- sity examinations: if they did not pass in two or three attempts they were turned out.The State universities were financed by the State. The universities had no rents, no rates, no salaries to pay. The State handed over the money and the universities 121 were entirely responsible for the expenditure. The State trusted its educational people. The one idea of the four great universities of America was to beat one another at football or baseball. Each University had a coach who was paid more than the president of the university: he did not play, but watched the men and coached them. If a man did not play well another was substituted for him. To get irioney to pay for their living while at the university, students took posts as waiters, servers in shops, or workers, worked two or three hours a day, and with their earnings they paid their expenses.The great American insurance companies were staffed by men who had passed through the universities. The universities were as good as any we had in this country. Prof. Baly also described in detail the comparatively perfect system of controlling road traffic in American cities: electric lamps and telephones, worked by the police, enabling a perfect and simultaneous stoppage of vehicular and even pedestrian traffic. In certain places it was a criminal proceeding to cross a road when the signal was given to stop. Almost everyone had a motor car in an American city; second-hand cars could be got for thirty to a hundred dollars, and petrol was 6d.or 7d. a gallon and there was no tax to pay. Prof. Raly concluded his address with a description of the geological structure, vastness and depth of the grand caiions of Colorado and Arizona. London and South-Eastern Counties.-At a meeting of the Section held jointly with the London Section of the Society of Chemical Industry in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on the 9th March, Sir Max Muspratt delivered an address on "Chemistry and Civilisation." Sir Robert Robertson, Chairman of the London Section, presided, and in introducing Sir Max Muspratt, said that he came from a race of chemists who had made notable contributions to their science, and referred especially to the well-known dictionary of the Applications of Chemistry to Arts by Sheridan Muspratt, an uncle of Sir Max, who had made important con- tributions to pure science, and, with Hofmann, had discovered toluidine and nitro-aniline.He referred also to the great firm with which Sir Max was associated and with which he worked during the war. That evening, however, they greeted him as one who, surveying the efforts of chemistry and its effects upon human life, would be welcomed in the capacity of a philosopher. 122 Sir Max Muspratt said that it was the first time in his life that he had been publicly accused of being a philosopher: he tried to take chemistry, civilisation and humanity, and to consider them as a whole.The history of civilisation was the history of man’s struggle with nature to discover her secrets. Nature was a lavish mother, but she kept her methods and her processes wonderfully secret. It was only by the maximum of endeavour on our part that we could hope to wrest those secrets from her. We had to win our way by knowledge strenu- ously fought for, and it was necessary that every generation should be hard put to it to discover the processes of nature with a view to the continued advancement of mankind. The workers in chemical industry and chemistry had come late into the field, but their achievements had not been unworthy in the short period that they had really been working. Sir Max traced the development of Mankind, particularly as it impinged upon the chemical industry.He referred to the social changes, industrial developments, the discoveries by rule of thumb and pure chance, which were associated with the copper age; then to the far more incomprehensible cutting and working of iron and the necessity for chemicals, even though the methods of manufacture were crude and only obtained from natural sources. He indicated the early use of potash and natural alkali, simple oils and fats, natural dyes, and drugs, and remarked upon the extraordinary developments which had been made during the past IOO years. The industrial era, with its rapid extension and concentration of population, had brought new and vital problems before mankind, problems which would never have been solved had it not been for chemistry and chemical industry. He considered then the developments of the chemical industry, particularly in connection with sulphuric acid and the discovery of chlorine, two of the oldest strictly chemical industries.He referred to Le Blanc and his alkali process and to the processes of Weldon and Deacon, remarking that the tendency had been to start with complicated processes and gradually to progress towards simplicity. The coal tar industry, with its dyes and pharmaceutical products, had developed with the fertiliser industry under the leadership of Liebig, who first pointed out the necessity of enriching soils if they were to bear good crops. The textile industry, assisted by chemistry, had become, or at any rate partly, one of the branches of chemical industry, particularly that of artificial silk.Chemistry had taught the iron and steel manufacturer to understand what he was really working with and to obtain a control which he could never have obtained by rule of thumb. The vast development of the iron and steel industry was due to the knowledge which the chemist had given the manufacturer and technician, and it had influenced other metals in the same way. Vast developments had taken place which could not have been achieved withodt the chemist. In connection with fuel, that is the study of flue gases and of the varying calorific values and composition of coals, he had effected great results in fuel economy.They had to consider the applications of chemistry in the production of and supply of food, not only in regard to fertilisers but in connection with the transport of food from the far parts of the world in re-frigerating or chilled chambers which the chemist had taught people how to use and develop; the manufacture of building materials and the invention of new materials; clothing and the development of the textile industry, all of which were dependent on chemical knowledge and the chemical industries. Transport had been profoundly affected by chemistry, as he had already indicated by the mention of iron and steel and other metals. Chemistry could claim to be one of the foundations of civilisation. Two other great foundations were physics in its practical form and engineering, and particularly electrical engineering; but the chemist had taught the engineer to understand what he was working with.He had dissected nature in the metal industry, for example, by starting with the ore, but had found out what the ore was and what it could contain, and showed by what methods it could be split up into its component parts. In agriculture he had stimulated nature: he had studied the soil and he had learnt that by attention to the soil he could increase the amount of crops produced. He had found substitutes for natural products, by the manufacture of alkali and dyes, and by long and laborious methods he had been able to produce what nature in certain parts of the world could produce a good deal better than the manufacturer could do; but he had yet to go a very long way before he could claim to have got all or nearly all of her secrets with regard to chemistry.She was very extravagant in many ways. It was difficult to understand why nature, in the sea, provides so much salt, when only in comparatively few parts of the world was that salt in such a sufficiently concentrated or pure form to make it possible for the manufacturer to obtain properly. There might be a time 124 when the sea-side resorts would become alkali and bleach works, or would have the capabilities of becoming such. What the chemists in industry were trying to do was to simplify their processes and by simplifying them $0 promote the aims of civili- sation even more than they had promoted them in the past.Sir Max then referred to the conditions after the war, to the state of mental unrest, which was universal in its character and was a challenge to chemistry to meet and, if possible, to remedy. The demand for the standard of living had risen, and with the destruction of wealth and a state of greater poverty that standard of living could not be maintained unless the chemist could advance rapidly again, as he did when first the industrial era arrived to cope with the problems of great aggregates of population. There was a disinclination to work, but he thought that the chemists had, both during and since the war, set a very fine example to the rest of the nation. The intense nationalism which was produced by the war had brought about a demand in almost every country for a greater development of its indigenous resources.The question of foodstuffs was one of the first to engage attention when the matter was viewed from that standpoint. We, with our ex-ceptional conditions, had dealt with the problem by keeping open the seas of the world. Germany, with her big area of land, followed the policy of developing her agriculture to the very utmost. Her magnificent achievement of obtaining nitrogen from the air might have a war purpose as well as a peace purpose, but she was deliberately trying to make herself self-contained in regard to all the nitrogen products that her agriculture was likely to require for generations to come.Instead of obtaining nitrogen from gas works or coke ovens or bringing it from Chile, she had undoubtedly achieved, through chemistry, something great in helping the development of home resources. With regard to phosphates, the other great essential for plant life, there were perhaps half a dozen known sources of phosphate rock in the world, but he thought there was not a country in the world which had not in her own soil more phosphate than would be sufficient to fertilise fields with all the phosphate that could be used. That was a problem for the chemists of the near future to study and solve. Coming to consider the possibilities of Bio-chemistry and Radio-activity, he suggested that when sugar had been produced, though in infinitesimal quantities from carbon dioxide and 125 hydrogen, another big vista opened out as to what chemistry could do for mankind in the way of making every country self dependent on its own resources. These suggestions might be alarming to chemical manufacturers, were it not for the fact that they knew that the time factor was a very im- portant one, there would be a long period of development; but they must follow step by step all the advances in science and determine, when the time arrived, to discontinue the old processes and be fully equipped for carrying on new ones with the same enterprise.They would need to encourage the com- munity of chemical thought among all chemists of whatever nation, and a community of understanding in order that develop- ments might be harmonised into a great whole.Chemists combine a hatred of waste with a pride of achievement, and they were bound to take a large part in the developments which were coming as a result of their hatred of waste and pride of achievement. In conclusion, he warned them that our material civilisation was threatened because it was too material: the developments of the last IOO years had been so extraordinary on the material side that they had outpaced the intellectual and spiritual develop- ment of mankind in general. The human factor had been swamped by the machine to no small extent, but there was nothing that had greater vitality than humanity which, in many directions, was revolting against its suppression by mere material things.He wanted every chemist to add to his specialised knowledge the duty of being a human and far-sighted citizen, because he thought that they were exceptionally fitted to advise the world by that intangible influence which means so much in the building up of public opinion. The duty was laid par- ticularly upon chemists to take their part in the spiritual and intellectual development of mankind, for which they were specially fitted by their training. They were taught to think in atoms and achieve in tons; to think of the infinitely little with a view to building up the infinitely great, and that was the problem of mankind at the present time. The infinite atoms of humanity should be guided and led that they might retain their vitality and individuality, and combine to a finer co-operat ive civilisat ion.Sir Robert Robertson having remarked that Sir Max Muspratt had given them a philosophical discussion of extraordinary interest, recalled how Lord Moulton had expressed his amazement, 126 when having had thrust upon him the duty of getting large supplies of chemical substances, he discovered the ramifications of chemistry in all branches of human endeavour. Sir Robert himself had experienced the same effect during his recent visit to Canada when it was borne in upon him how the advancement and importance of Canada to the world depended upon chemistry He referred especially to agriculture, the wood pulp industry, mining, and the production of various substances, such as carborundum, aluminium, and carbide, all of which had their foundation in chemistry.The country desired to be self-contained, and ultimately to export. A cordial vote of thanks was passed to Sir Max Muspratt on the motion of Mr. W. J. U. Woolcock, President of the Society of Chemical Industry, seconded by Dr. Bernard Dyer, Chairman of the London Section of the Society. Mr. Woolcock endorsed Sir Max Muspratt’s remarks and said that he thought chemists had a great part to play not only in scientific discoveries and in carrying on everyday work in the laboratory, but as an educated section of the community in assisting the development of civilisation. Malaya.-The first annual general meeting of the Section was held at Kuala Lumpur, on zIst February, Mr.R. W. Blair in the chair. The Report submitted showed that the main activities of the Section had been concerned with its formation, the inaugural meeting having been held on 3rd August, 1924,and the manage- ment of the Section being entrusted to a Committee consisting of Mr. R. W. Blair, Chairman; Messrs. J. C. Cowap, I?. Id. Okell, A. G. Harrington, J. W. Haddon, with Mr. R. 0. Bishop as Honorary Secretary and Treasurer. The Chairman gave an address on “Chemistry in relation to Public Affairs,” having special regard to the government and municipal chemical service, food and water supplies, treatment of sewage; he dealt with the service rendered by chemists to agricultural, geological and other departments as well as to industries and to the community generally.The annual dinner of the Section was held on the same day. The guests included the Director of Public Works, the Com- missioner for Trade and Customs, the Director of the Institute of Medical Research, the General Manager of the F.M.S. Railways, the Forest Research Officer, the Senior Health Officer, and the 127 General Manager of Messrs. Harrison, Barker & Co., representing the Rubber Industry. Replying for the guests, Mr. C. N. Maxwell, Commissioner for Trade and Customs, said that this was a unique occasion, and as a resident of close on thirty-five years in the country, he would like to express his pleasure at being present at the first public dinner of chemists held in Malaya.From Mr. Blair’s paper he had gathered that members of the Institute regarded themselves as sponsors for the purity of food and water supplies and for the quality of the country’s natural products. As head of a department, he could assure them that he had been fully aware of the extremely valuable work which had been and still was carried out by chemists in Malaya; he realised that they had had an uphill fight in the past. He hoped that the time would come when Malaya products would be recognised by their purity and high standard of quality, and emphasised the great importance of this in considering questions of propaganda, especially in connection with commodities such as rubber and copra.It was highly satisfactory to know that Malaya had in its chemists such a powerful means to attain success. The Local Section of the Institute evidenced the growing importance of chemistry to the community. The occasion was, in his opinion, historical in the development of Malaya. Mr. Maxwell concluded by paying a personal tribute to several chemists with whom he had come into personal contact in the course of his duties. The menu, which comprised notes on the principal chemicals used in a well known organic reaction, created considerable amusement. Manchester.-The Manchester Section has directed atten- tion to a warning published in the Zeitschzrift fur angewartdte Chemie. The statement runs as follows:- “German Students of Chemistry 1913-1914 1923-1924 .. .. .. .. .. .. 2729 6851 German students concluding High School course 1913-1914 1923-1924 .. .. 362 941 In the five years 1919-1924, 3192 German candidates became available for places in the Chemical Industry, so that allowing for normal decrease through death, etc., of 350 per annum, in a further ten years the number of chemists in the industry will be 20,000, i.e. double the 10,000 which was normal at the end of the war. 128 The outlet for German chemists in the “enemy” countries is, at present, closed for political reasons. At the same period 1923-24 there were 765 foreign chemical students in the High Schools. We would, therefore earnestly impress on all students of Chemistrythat unless they feel that Chemistry is their true calling, and unless they are determined to serve our science with “iron energy” they should take up another calling.Pootnote.-This warning is distributed to all High Schools. All members are requested to give this information ths widest circulation.” A general meeting of the Section was held on the 2nd March in the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society. Mr. S. E. Melling, the Chairman, presented certificates to three new Associates. A lecture was delivered by Dr. A. Renshaw on “Chemical Poisoning occurring amongst Industrial Workers.” The substances dealt with covered a wide field, both organic and inorganic poisons being considered. Samples of blood, the colour of which had been radically altered by certain poisons, were shown.An interesting discussion followed, in which Messrs. Bright- man, Elsdon, Hannay, Herbert, Rogers and others took part. A cordial vote of thanks was passed to the lecturer, on the motion of Dr. Ardern, seconded by Mr. Lester. Newcastle and North-East Coast.--A meeting of the Section was held, by kind permission of Mr. S. Hoare Collins, in the Agricultural Department of Armstrong College, on 14th January, Prof. Henry Louis in the chair. Dr. A. Fleck gave an address on “Water Power Developments in Eastern Canada,” illustrated by lantern slides. The subject proved to be very interesting, and the lecture was thoroughly enjoyed. On 11th February, Mr. S. Hoare Collins addressed the members of the Local Section on “The Institute and Agricultural Chemistry.” Mr. H.C. L. Bloxam presided in the absence of Prof. Louis. An interesting discussion took place, in which many members participated. On 20th March, Mr. A. G. Bloxam visited the Section and read a paper on the “Inventor.” Members of the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry and the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders were invited to attend this meeting. The lecture was highly interesting, and a most enjoyable evening was spent. 129 South Wales.-A meeting of the Section was held at Thomas' Caf6, Swansea, on 13th February, after which the members adjourned to hear jointly with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry, a lecture, given at the Swansea Technical College on "Tannins and Catechins," by Dt-.Ilu'ieren-stein, Head of the Biochemical Research Laboratory at Bristol. Dr. Nierenstein siimiiiarised in his lecture the results of his investigations on the tannins in general and the caterliins in particular. The investigation of the catechin from Acacia catechu-Acacatechin -was described and its constitution deduced. The syntheses of acacatechin and isoacacatechin were described, and the conversion of catechin into tannin-like products was discussed, The catechin from other different sources, some of them stereoisomerides of acacatechin and isoacscetechin, were also described. Mr. E. A. Tyler presided, and Messrs. Hinkel, Green, Grieb, and Woctd weie among others who took part in the discussion which fclllowed.A cordial vote of thanks was passed to the lecturer. 130 Notes. The Royal Microscopical Society has accepted an invitation from the University of Sheffield, the Civic Authorities, the Master Cutler, and the Research Associations, to hold a Conference in Sheffield on Monday, the 20th April and following days. The programme includes the reading of papers, visits to works and laboratories, and an exhibition of instruments and apparatus. Fellows and Associates of the Institute are invited to attend the Conference, and the Council will appoint two delegates to represent the Institute officially at the Conference. Members who are desirous of attending the Conference are asked to communicate immediately with the Registrar.Income Tax,-Enquiries are often received at the Institute regarding the possibility of obtaining abatement of income tax in respect of subscriptions to societies and to journals. In the case of Simfison, Inspector of Taxes, v. Tate, heard before Mr. Justice Rowlatt, on 12th March, the respondent, Dr. John Tate, County Medical Officer for Middlesex, appealed to the Commissioners against an assessment of income tax under Schedule E of the Income Tax Act, 1918. The respondent had paid subscriptions to varbus societies amounting in all to fl8 6s. 6d., and claimed that the money was expended wholly exclusively and necessarily in the performance of his duties as County Medical Officer and should be deducted from his salary in order to arrive at his correct liability to income tax.The respondent gave evidence before the Commissioners and proved :-that he joined the Royal Society of Medicine in order to have the benefit of the meetings of the epidemiological branch of the Society and to obtain the transactions published by that branch ; that the Society included a section on infectious diseases, a subject of the greatest importance to County Medical Officers; that the Society of Medical Officers published a journal dealing with public health matters and took an active interest in questions 131 affecting the status and salaries of public health officers; that he became a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health in order to get their journal, which contained articles on matters relating to public health; that he became a member of the Association of County Medical Officers of Health to enable him to ascertain how similar work was conducted throughout England; that membership of the above societies was voluntary on the part of the respondent and was not required as a condition of his appointment, but that it was customary for County Medical Officers to be members of those Societies; that without the journals and meetings of the Societies he would experience great difficulty in keeping in touch with recent advances in sanitary science and with questions affecting public health, and in many instances would be unable to obtain the knowledge which would enable him to perform his duties with increased efficiency.He contended, therefore, that the sum of ;68 6s. 6d. was a proper deduction from his emoluments to be assessed under Schedule E. It was contended for the Crown that the money was not so expended and was not, therefore, a proper deduction. The Commissioners found favourably to the respondent, and the Crown now appealed. The Solicitor-General, Sir Thomas Inskip, K.C., and Mr. R. P. Hills appeared for the Crown; Mr. J. H. Stamp for the respondent. Mr. Justice Rowlatt, in the course of his judgment said that the decision of the Commissioners could not be supported: if the conclusion was a question of fact there was no evidence to support it. Certain expenses were allowed to an office-holder; but an office-holder, as he understood the position, was a person who was obliged to qualify for his office, who had to get to the place where his duties were carried out, and who was allowed certain expenses in performing them.The respondent has first to qualify himself before taking up his office, and he continually and very properly kept himself fit by continuing in touch with the highest knowledge his profession had reached. He did not join the Societies for the purpose of treating patients, but for the purpose of keeping himself qualified as a man to hold his office. The whole question was a matter of principle. Subscriptions to professional societies , and the buying of professional literature, and all the expenses involved in keeping a man fit for the work he was doing could not be allowed.Otherwise any man belonging to any profession could 132 deduct all such expenses and there would be no end to it. The principle was quite clear, and none of the expenses incurred by the respondent could be deducted. The appeal would be allowed with costs. The above report is abstracted from The Times. This decision is confined to assessments under Schedule E, and it does not follow that the same consideration would apply in the case of consultants who are assessed under Schedule D. Platinum.-A Bill is being fostered by the London Chamber of Commerce for the hall-marking of platinum. The object of the Bill is to apply a standard of purity to goods made of or containing platinum unless they are described as platinum alloy, and to provide for the hall-marking of platinum goods in a manner similar to that in which articles of gold and silver are hall-marked. It provides that the expression “platinum ” when used as a trade description of any goods shall be deemed to mean an article manufactured from or containing platinum of a standard of purity of not less than .950 and the application of any such expression to any goods which are not truly described by such expression shall be deemed to be the application of a false description of such goods.The draft Bill in its present form is permissive and not compulsory, but it is understood that the Goldsmiihs’ Company take the view that a permissive system of marking would not be satisfactory.It is not proposed to mark platinum crucibles and basins with a series of impressions like those used on silver, but a single device, without date-letter 01:maker’s mark, applied by the Assay Office. Many chemists, however, dislike the idea of a mark, no matter how small, on platinum vessels. The Institute of Chemistry Students’ Association (London.) The subscription of honorary members has been reduced from 10s. to 5s., and 2s. 6d. in the case of those who have been ordinary members of the Association. Dr. S. Judd Lewis, who received the Gold Research Medal of the Worshipful Company of Dyers for 1921-22, has received a Bar for 1923-24. Dr. Oliver C. de C. Ellis, chemist-poet, the author of Samson Adami and Other Ess~ysin Verse, has produced a further volume entitled Poetry and Science and Other Essays in Prose.133 Obituary. HORACETABBERERBROWN,an original Fellow of the Institute, died at Evelyn Gardens, Kensington, on 6th February, in his 77th year Born at Burton-on Trent, he was educated at Trent and Atherston Grammar Schools and continued his studies at the Royal College of Chemistry from 1865to 1867. He was associated with the Brewingindustry with Messrs. Wxthington and Co. at Burton on 'Trent from 1866 until 1893 and was distinguished for his rescaiches on femien' ation and the carbohydrates. He received the LongqtaiY Meilal of the Chemical Society in 1894, mas elected a Fellow of the ltoyal Society in 1889, mas awarded the Royal Medal in 1903 and the Copley !Medal in 1920.He received the honorary degree of LL.D. at the University of Edinburgh, was President of the Chemical Section of the British Asyociation in 1899, and a Member of the Royal Commission on Whisky in 1908. Mr. A. Chaston Chapman represented the Institute at the funeral of Dr. Brown. 134 Professional Designatory Letters. By GEOFFREYP. CAMMIADE,B.A., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law THErecent case of Royal Institute of British Architects v. Hindle (1925,69 S.J.367)calls attention to a question of great import- ance to chartered bodies and professional societies. It involves no obscure point of law, but it deserves notice as showing that unauthorised persons who adopt letters designating membership of a Chartered Association are guilty of “passing off,” and are liable to be restrained by injunction.In this case the defendant had represented that he had passed the examination of the Association of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and had added the letters A.R.I.B.A. after his name. By this means he had obtained a contract of employment with a Mr. Best at a salary of six guineas a week for a term of five years. After some time Mr. Best became doubtful as to the defendant’s qualifications, and on investigation found that the defendant had not in fact passed the examination, and was not an A.R.I.B.A., as he had represented. The Society thereupon applied for, and were granted, an injunction restraining the defendant from using the letters A.R.I.B.A.after his name. As the designatory letters are, as it were, the hall mark conferred by professional bodies on their members, it is essential to discover the principles involved as deduced from leading cases. The first case is that of The Society of Accomtants and Auditors v. Good-day and the London Association of Accountants, Limited (1907, I Ch. 489). In that case the plaintiff society was in- corporated in 1885, under the Companies’ Act, 1867, as a company not for gain, without the use of the word “limited,” under licence of the Board of Trade. In 1886the plaintiff society recommended its members to use after their names the words “incorporated accountant.” By the year 1905 this designation had come to mean. to that section of the public which had dealings with accountants, membership of the society, which, by its system of examinations, had conferred on its members the valuable privilege of a recognised status for ability and integrity.In that year the defendant association was incorporated under the 135 Companies’ Acts as a company limited by guarantee. Shortly after its incorporation its Council recommended its members to add after their names the words “incorporated Accountant Lon. Asson.” In an action by the society against the association, and Goodway, one of its members, claiming (I) an injunction to restrain Goodway from using in connection with his business of accountant, the words “incorporated accountant,” and (2) an injunction to restrain the association from holding out by advertisement or otherwise that its members were entitled to use such a designation, it was held by Warrington, J., that “incorporated accountant” was a “fancy,” and not a “des-criptive” name, and had come to mean membership of the plaintiff society; and that the unauthorised use of it inflicted an injury on the plaintiff society in respect of which it might maintain an action.He held further that the plaintiff society had a pecuniary interest in preventing the defendants from attempting to reduce the status of the plaintiff society by con-ferring improperly an indication of that status. Dealing with the question of whether the society could complain of what the defendant Goodway was doing, Warrington, J., said: “That is a new point of law in England.So far as I am aware, there is no case . . . in which the question has been decided whether an incorporated body such as the society here can be regarded as suffering a legal injury by reason of a person who is not a member of that body representing himself to be a member of it; but a case of that nature did come before the Court of Session in Scotland in Society of Accountants in Edinburgh v. Corfiovation of Accountants, Ltd.” (1893,20 R. 750). After stating the facts and the decision in that case he continued : “I think the judgments of the Court there were put on a wider ground, namely, that a body, however incorporated, has a right to prevent persons who are not members of it, from representing themselves to be members of it.In the case before me there seems to be little difficulty in coming to that conclusion, for the reason that it is established by the evidence, that membership of the society confers a status, a valuable privilege on its members. . . . Obviously the possession of this definite status, arising from the fact of membership is an inducement to persons to become members. Looked at in this way it seems to me that the Society has a pecuniary interest in preventing persons who are not its members, and are not entitled to the status which its membership confers, from representing that they are its members, and are 136 entitled to that status.’’ It will be observed that Warrington, J., lays stress on the fact that membership of the pIaintiff society in the above case conferred a valuable status on persons who were members.In the case of Imtitute of Chartered Accountants v. Hard-wick (1919, 35 T.L.R. 34z),an injunction was granted to restrain the defendant from using on his note paper the words, under the defendant’s name, “Honours Final. Institute of Chartered Accountants,” as such words led to the belief that he was a member of, or connected with, that Institute. The facts were that he had passed the final examination with honours, but having become bankrupt was not admitted as a member of the society. It is submitted that the principle on which these cases are decided is a simple one. The Institute or Society must show that the fact of membership confers a recognised status, and is an inducement to persons to bebome members, with the result that the Institute or Society has a pecuniary interest in the letters or title which it confers on its members.A4Bill which is at present before the House of Lords, entitled “The Chartered Associations (Protection of Names anduniforms) Bill,” will, it is suggested, probably provide a summary remedy in cases of unauthorised users of designatory letters or the name of a professional association, By this Bill it is proposed that His Majesty may from time to time, by Order in Council, made on the application of any Society incorporated by Royal Charter, protect the name, designation, uniform, or badge of such Society; that any person using such name, etc., or any name, etc., so similar as to lead to the belief that the bearer is a member of such protected Society, shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding LIO.The passing of this Bill into law would have, it is thought, the effect of protecting Societies which are incorporated by Royal Charter, and probably save them from the necessity of obtaining an injunction in cases of infringement; the Bill is, however, by no means without blemish, and may require some amendment to give Chartered Associations proper protection as to the use of their special designatory letters. The question of protection of members of professional institutes and societies is a matter of considerable importance to the public, since the public assumes that a person who holds out that he is a member is a person properly qualified by examination and experience to practise the profession of which professes to be a member.-The Secrctary, March, 1925.137 Books and their Contents. The following books have been presented by the authors or publishers, and may be seen in the Library of the Institute. “Birkbeck College Centenary Lectures,” 1823-1923. A Course of Lectures given at the College in connection with the Celebration of the Centenary, with a preface by the Rt. Hon. J. Ramsay MacDonald. Pp. xiv.+ 178. (University of London Press, Ltd.). 5s. “Chemical Engineering Library.” Second series. (London: Ernest Benn, Ltd.).6s. per volume. “Distillation Principles.” C. Elliott. Pp. 166. Vapour Pressure; the gas lams; non-miscible and partly miscible liquids : liquids miscible in all proportions; composition of liquidand vapour; complex mixtures; effect of variation of pressure;thermal aspects; distillation of binary mixtures. Tables. “The Dust Hazard in Industry.” W. E. Gibbs. Pp. 168. Dust; occupational diseases due to dust ; explosive combustion ; investigation of explosive dust; dust explosions in factories and mines. “Agitating, Stirring and Kneading Machinery.” H. Seymour. PP. 139. Agitating, stirring, kneading and masticating machinery; vessels for agitating, stirring and kneading; mixing, grinding and diluting paint in pebble mills. “Acid-Resisting Metals.” S.J. Tungay. Pp. 132. High silicon iron or acid-resisting iron; lead and regulus metal; aluminium; stainless steels; monel metal; cast iron and steel; nickel and chromium dloys; copper and copper alloys. “Mechanical Mixing Machinery.” L. Carpenter. Pp. 138. Operations of mixing; types of mixing machinery; intensive mixing; mixing in the cement and building industries; in the ceramic industry; in the fertiliser industry and in other industries. “Colloid Chemistry, the Foundations of.” A selection of early papers bearing on the subject, edited on behalf of the Colloids Committee of the British Association by E. Hatschek. Pp. 174. (London: Ernest Benn, Ltd.). 18s. The physiological utility of the fats and a new theory of cell formation based on their co-operation and supported by several new facts ; studies on the demulsion of silver chloride; study of the pseudo-solutions 138 of Prussian Blue and of the influence of salts in destroying them; the products of decomposition of sulphurctted hydrogen and sulphurous acid in aqueous solution; the experimental relations of gold (and other metals) to light; the properties of silicic acid and other analogous colloidal substances ; question of silver suboxide compounds ; the nature of colloids and their water content; allotropic forms of steel.“Chemistry by Micro-Methods, Practical.” E. C. Grey. Pp. ix.f-124. (Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd.). 4s. 6d. Physical properties of metals; experiments with fiarncs arid btirners; recognition of elements by flame test; detection of metals by reduction and oxidation; experiments with acids and alkalis; reactions with water; solutions: qualitative analysis; tests for the base of a simple salt and for acid radicles; separation of mixtures; volumetric analysis; detection of the elements in an organic substance; examination and provisional classification of some naturally occurring organic substances hydrocarbons; oxidation products.Dictionary-German-English, for Chemists. A. M. Patterson. Pp. xvit-343. (London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd.). 12s. 6d. “Organic Chemical Analysis, A Student’s Manual.” J. F. Thorpe and M. A. Whiteley. Pp. 5.t-250. (London: Longmans, Green & Co.). gs. Detection of elements in organic compounds; purification of organiccompounds for analysis ; ultimate analysis of organic compounds ; reactions of the commoner organic compounds ; detection and estimation of radicles ; systematic examination of complex organic coinpounds leading to relegation to class.“Organic Chemistry, An Introduction to.” A. Lowy and B. Harrow. Pp. ix.3-389. (New York and London: Chap-man & Hall, Ltd.). 15s. Aliphatic series; aromatic series; plant and animal pigments ; mzymes,vitamines and hormones. “Soap and Detergent Industry, The Modern.” G. Martin. Pp. xii.+359. (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son). 36s. Vol. 11. Tho ma,nufacture of special soaps and detergent compositions. Toilet soap and preparations; soaps arid soap preparations used in pharmacy; textile soaps; chipped, flaked, powdered, abrasivo and polishing soaps; soft soaps and potassium soaps; miscellaneous methods of saponification; soap substitutes and fillers, organic and inorganic; leakher creams, boot polishes, and furniture polishes ; chornicsl arialyses of soap and soap preparations; statistics of tho soap industry.‘‘Volumetric Analysis, New Reduction Methods in.” E. Knecht and E Hibbert. and edition. (London: Long-mans, Green & Co.). 8s. 6d. The Library. Since the issue of the JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS,Part 11. 1924, the Lectures and Library Committee have had much pleasure in acknowledging the following gifts :-MESSBS. BArLLIEEE, TINDALL& Cox: Chemical Encvclopadia--a Digest of Chemistry and Chemical Industry. C.T. Kingzett, F.I.C. 3rd edition. London, 1924. MESSRS. R. & J. BECK, LTD.: The Microscope. A simple handbook. Conrad Beck. London, 1921. ERNESTMESSRS. BE", LTD.: The Foundations of Colloid Chemistry. Emil Hatschek. London, 1925. Chemical Engineering Library. Second series. London, 1924;-The Technology of Water. Alan A. Pollitt, M.Sc.Tech. A.M.C.T., M .Inst.Me t . Sulphuric Acid Concentration. Vol. I. By Hot Gases. P. Parrish, A.I.C., M.I.Chem.E., and F. C. Snelling.Sulphuric Acid Concentration. Vol. 11. In Heated Vessels. P. Parrish, A.I.C., M.I.Chem.E., and F. C. Snelling.Organisation of Production. John W. Curtis, M.B.E., A.M.1.Mech.E. Crushing and Grinding Machinery. Hartland Seymour.The Screening and Grading of Materials. J. E. Lister, A.M.Inst.C.E., A.M.1.Mech.E. Chemical Engineering Lzbrar?y. Second Series. London, 1925;--Distillation Principles. C. Elliott The Dust Hazard in Industry. 'CV. E. Gibbs. Agitating, Stirring and Kneading Machinery. Hartland Seymour. Acid-Resisting Metals. Sydney J. Tungay.Mechanical Mixing Machinery. L. Carpenter.Bituminous Substances. Scientific Progress of Practical Importance during the last 15 years. P. E. Spielmann, Ph.D., B.Sc., F.I.C. With a Foreword by J. Kewley. London, 1925. Synthetic Organic Compounds. S. P. Schotz, D.Sc., Tech., F.1.C. London, 1925. The Chemical Ago Year Book, Diary and Directory, 1925. London, 1924. Cotton-Cellulose. It,s Chemistry and Technology.A. J. Hall, B.Sc., F.I.C. London, 1924. Chemistry and Atomic Structure. J. D. Main Smith, Ph.D., B.Sc. Londm, 1924. The Scientific Promotion of Gas Sales. A Treatise upon the Organisa- tion of Gas Distribution and Gas Sales Departments. Arthur Coo. London, 1924. The Chemical Age Chemical Dictionary. Chemical Terms. London, 1924. 140 Chemistry in the Twentieth Century. An Account of the Achieve- ment and the present state of knowledge in Chemical Science. Dr. E. F. Armstrong, F.R.S. London, 1924. The Design and Working of Ammonia Stills. P. Parrish, A.I.C., 3f.I.Chem.E., London, 1924. Atoms and Rays. An Introduction to Modern Views on Atomic Structure and R,adiation. Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. London, 1924. The Specific Heats of Gases.J. R. Partington, M.B.E., D.Sc. and W. G. Shilling, M.C., M.Sc. London, 1924. Chemical Industry Pamphlets. London, 1924. Chemists and their work. Stephen Miall. The Quest for Colour. Dr. A. T. de Mouilpied, M.Sc., F.I.C. Wood Products. T. W. Jones, B.Sc. The Fermentation Industries. Rex Furness. Fine Chemicals. T. W. Jones, B.Sc. The Heavy Chemical Industry. Rex Furness. Chemistry in the Manufacture of Pigments, Paints and Vanishes. C. A. Klein, M.Sc. Chemistry in Relation to Foods. Dr. G. W. Monier-\Villiams, O.B.E., F.I.C. The Resources of the Empire Series-Chemicals. A. W. Ashe and H. G. T. Boorman, A.I.C. London, 1924. Oils, Fats, Waxes and Resins. E. R. Rolton, F.I.C. and R. G. Pelly, F.I.C. London, 1924. Lime and Magnesia.The Chemistry, Manufacture md Uses of the Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates of Calcium and Magnesium. N. V. S. Knibbs, B.Sc. London, 1924. OFTHE GOVERNORS BIRKBECECOLLEGE. Birkbeck College Centenary Lectures, 1823-1923. London,, 1924. MESSRS. BLACKIE& SON,LTD. The Structure of Matter. J. A. Cranston, D.Sc., A.I.C. London, 1924. Chemical Synthesis. Studies in the Investigation of Natural Organic Products. Harry Hepworth, D.Sc., F.I.C. London, 1924. Complex Salts. William Thomas, B.A., M.Sc., Ph.D., A.I.C. London, 1924. THE CAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITY :PRESS. Matter and Change. An Introduction to Physical and Chemical Science. W. C. D. Whetham, &LA., F.R.S. Cambridge, 1924. MESSRS. CKAPMAN& HALL,LTD. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry.Alexander Lowry, Ph.D., and Benjamin Harrow, Ph.D. London, 1926. A German-English Dictionary for Chemists. Austin M. Patterson, Ph.D. London, 1924. Aniline and its Derivatives. P. H. Groggins, B.S. London, 1924. MESSRS. CONSTABLE& Co., LTD.: A Text Book of Glass Technology. F. W. Hodkin, B.Sc., A.I.C. and A. Cousen, M.Sc., A.R.C.S., A.I.C. London, 1925. Introduction to Theoretical Physics. Vol. I. By Arthur Haas, Ph.D., translated from the third and fourth editions by T. Verschoyle, M.C., B.Sc., A.R.C.S. With a Foreword by Professor F. G. Donnan, F.R.S. London, 1924. 141 DAVIES,L. J. AND D. OWEN.: South Wales Coals, Their Analyses, Chemistry and Geology. L. J. navies and D. Owen Devies. Cardifl, 1924.EASTICK,J. C. N., A.I.C.: The Discovery of the Periodic Law and on Relations among the Atomic Weights. John A. R. Newlands, F.I.C. London, 1884. FOWLER,GILBERTJ,, D.Sc., F.I.C. : Some Studies in Bio-Chemistry. By some Students of Dr. Fowler, Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore, 1924. MESSRS. GEORGEG. HARRAP & Co., LTD.: Chemistry of the Rarer Elements. Professor B. Smith Hopkins. London, 1924. MESSRS. HEFEER& SONS, LTD.: Practical Chemistry by Micro-Methods. Egerton Charles Greg,D.Sc., F.I.C., M.R.C.S. Cambridge, 1925. KENT-JONES,D. W., B.Sc., F.I.C.: Modern Cereal Chemistry. D. W. Kent-Jones, B.Sc., F.I.C. Liverpool, 1924. MESSRS. LONGMANS,GREEN& Co.: A Student’s Manual of Organic Chemical Analysis. Qualitative and Quantitative.Jocelyn Field Thorpe, C.B.E., D.So., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.C., and Martha Annie Whiteley, O.B.E., F.I.C. London, 1925. New Reduction Methods in Volumetric Analysis. E. Knecht and E. Hibbert. London, 1925. Physical Chemistry for Students of Medicine. Alexander Findlay, M.A., D.Sc., F.I.C. London, 1924. A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. J. W. Mellor, D.Sc. Vol. V. London, 1924. The Constituents of Coal Tar. Percy Edwin Spielmann, Ph.D., B.Sc., F.I.C., A.1nst.P. London, 1924. A System of Physical Chemistry. William C. McC. Lewis, M.A.,D.Sc., F.1nst.P. Edited by Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S., and F. G. Donnan, M.A., Ph.D., F.I.C., F.R.S. In three volumes. Vol. 111. 3rd edition.Quantum Theory. London, 1924. The Carbohydrates and the Glucosides. E. Frankland Armstrong, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.I.C. 4th edition. London, 1924. MESSRS. NOBEL’SEXPLOSIVESCo., LTD. : Report on Sulphuric Acid and its manufacture by the Contact Process. R. Knietsch. SIR ISAAC & SONS, LTD.: PITMAN The Platinum Metals. E. ,4. Smith. London, 1925. CHARLES F.I.C. :SPACKMAN, Calcareous Cements. Their Nature, Manufacture and Uses. Gilbert R. Redgrave, A.Inst.C.E., and Charles Spackman, F.I.C. London, 1924. STEWART,ALAN W., D.Sc., A.I.C.: A Manual of Practical Chemistry for Public Health Stuclents. Alan W. Stewart, D.Sc., A.I.C. London, 1924. SUTTON,F. NAPIER, F.I.C.: Volumetric Analysis or The Quantitative Determination of Chemical Substances, by Measure applied to Liqtids, Solids and Gases.F. Napier Sutton, F.I.C. London, 1924. 142 Books Purchased. Chemical Technolow and Anaimis of Oils, Fats and Waxes. Dr. J. Lewkowitsch, \M.A., F.I.C. " Edited by George H. Warburton. In three volumes. Vol. I. 6th edition, entirely re-written and enlarged. London, 1921. Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats and Waxes. Dr. J. Lewkowitsch, MA., F.I.C. Vol. IT. London, 1922. Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats and Waxes. Dr. J-Lewkowitsch, M.A., F.I.C. Vol. 111. London, 1923. A Dictionary of Applied Chemistry. Sir Edward Thorpe, C.B., LL.D.,F.R.S. Vol. V., revised and enlarged edition. London, 1924. The Mineral Industry. Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during1923. Founded by Richard P.Rothwell. Edited by (3. A. Roush, A.B., M.S. Associate Editor, Allison Butt8, A.B., B.S. New York and London, 1924. 143 The Register. At the meeting of Council he1d"on 27th February, 1925, 2 new Fellows were elected, 8 Associates were elected to the Fellowship, 36 new Associates were elected, and 21 Students were admitted. The Institute has lost 8 Fellows by death. New Fellows. Roaeley, Leonard Kidgell, 5, Farm Walk, Hampstead Way, London, N.W.4. Hewson, Gorge William, Grasmere, Field Terrace, Jarrow-on-Tyne. Associates elected to the Fellowship. Bruce, Alexander, B.Sc. (Edin.), The Laboratory, Hyde Park Corner, Colombo, Ceylon.Campbell, Alan Newton, Ph.D. (Lond.), Mond Nickel Go., Clydach,Swaneea.Chibnall, Albert Charles, M.A. (Cantab.), Ph.D. (Lond.), Cedar House, Chiswick Mall, London, W.4. Clark, Walter, Ph.D. (Lond.), 11, Lodge Road, Hendon, London, N.W.4. Doidge, Russell Mervyn, B.Sc. (Lond.), 288, Louisville Road, Balham, London, S.W.17. Newcomb, Clive, I.M.S., B.A., M.D., (Oxon.), M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., Chemicd Examiner, Park Town, Madras, India. Rawling, Sidney Owen, M.Sc. (Lond.), c/o the Institute of Chemistry,30, Russell Square, London, W.C.1. Waele, Armand de, c/o D. Qestetner, Ltd., Neo-Cyclostyle Works, Totten-ham Hale, London, N.17. New Associates. Banfield, Francis Harrold, M.Sc. (Lond.), 40, Maryland Road, Wood Green, London, N.22. Buckles, Cyril William, B.Sc. (Lond.), 9, Cedar Road, l'horpe Hamlet, Norwieh .Chapman, William Ronald, M.Sc. (Shefl.j, Department of Fuel Technology, St. George's Square, Sheffield. Crossley, Eric Lomas, B.Sc. (Lond.), West Bank, Devonshire Road, Sherwood, Nottingham. Dawjes, Frank Stuart, -4.R..C.S., 101, Gough Road, Edgbaston, Bir-mingham.Dawson, Thomas Theodore, B.Sc. (Birm.), 82, Witherford Way, Selly Oak, Birmingham. Dunshy, ArthLr Norman, B.Sc. (Bris.), 165, Oakfield Road, Cwmbran, near Newport. Elder, Henry, 20, Warrender Park Road, Edinburgh. Flower, Albert George, R.Sc. (Lond.), 14, Melbourne Street, Derby. 144 Grant, George, ‘ ‘ Abernyte, ” Pumphers ton, Mid -Calder , Gray, Thomas, B.Sc. (Glas.), 8, Greenfield Place, Shettlestone, Glasgow. Green, Robert Arnold, B.Sc.(Dunelm), North End, Front Street, Sacriston, Durham. Grist, Ralph Alfred Sidney, B.A. (Oxon.), 28, Greyhound Lane, Streatham Common, London, S.W.16. Haden, Eric Hector, B.Sc. (Lond.), 2, Cathcart Road, Stourbridge,Worcestershire. Harrison, William Finnemore, M.Sc. (Birm.), 10, Third Avenue, Selly Park, Birmingham. Hecker, William Rundle, B.Sc. (Lond.), 17, Cecil Square, Margate. Hindes, Frederic William, M.Sc. (Vict.), Wesley Manse, Uppermill, near Oldham. Hohson, Ralph Percival, B.Sc., B.Sc. Agric. (Lond.), Rothamsted Ex-perimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. Howitt, Frederick Oliver, B.Sc. (Lond.), c/o Ogston & Moore, 77, Via Giuseppe La Farina, Messina, Sicily. Jenkins, Samuel Harry, M.Sc.Tech. (Vict.), 138, Bury New Road, Brouehton.Manchester. Kipps, W~lliam‘Harry, B.Sc. (Lond.), 24, Queen’s Road, Hcndon, London, N.W. Knowles, William Maurice Foster, B.Sc. (Lond.), 1, Lewes Road, Eas tbourne. Lamping, Dou,glas, A.C.G.F.C., Finlagan, Pollards Hill South, Norbury, London, S.W.16. Lawman, Leslie Clifford, B.Sc. (Lond.), 55, Drakefield Road, London, S.W.17. MacNeill, Miss Maire Siuban, A.R.C.Sc.I., Mount Verdant, Kilkenny, Ireland. Marsden, Hermon, B.Sc. (Leeds), Blackgates, Tingley, near Wakefield. Partington, Norman, B.Sc. (Manc.), 2, Rewa Villas, Newport Road, Aldershot, Hants. Paxon, Francis James, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.S., D.I.C., 30, St. George’s Road, Palmers Green, London, N. 13. Price, Miss Grace Lilian, B.A. (Dublin), Clyston, Broadclyst, Exeter.Robertson, James Hoy, Ph.D. (Liv.), 11, Knowsley Road, Cressington Park, Liverpool. Sharp, Miss Marion, M.Sc. (Dun.), Lyndale, Kensington Gardens, Hale, Cheshire. Simm, William Donald Mellis, B.Sc. (Manc.), Bridge Foot House, Belper, Derbyshire. Thorp, Edwin William, B.Sc. (Lond.), Thruxton, Tennyson Road, Bognor. Tricker, Reginald Ernest Lanham, M.Sc.Tech. (Manc.), 55, Lloyd Street South, Moss Side, Manchester. Walton, Edward Tunna Sylvester, B.Sc. (Liv.), The Thorns, Higher Road, Urmston, near Manchester. Withers, Donald Frederic, B.Sc. (Lond.), 17, Selhurst Road, South Nor-wood, London, S.E.25. New Students. Alexander, James Brown, Ivy Nook, Kelso, Roxburghshire. Baker, Thomas Eric George, 26, Foster Road, Chiswick, London, W.4. Biggs, Cyril Hubert, Thwaites, Meadowfield Road, Bridlington.Bird, Thomas Reid, 26, Gosford Place, Edinburgh. Buckley, Sidney Ernest, 31, Willow Grove, Plaistow, London, E.13. Dunn, Richard Trevor, 41, Waterloo Place, Brynmill, Swansea. Forrester, Stanley Drummond, 26, Cowan Road, Edinbiirgh. 145 Godsell, Miss Alice Tudor, 29, Alban Road, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire. Harris, Miss Eileen Winifred, 37, Cambridge Road, King’s Heath, Birming- ham. Jarman, Arthur William, B.Sc. (Lond.), 9, Crouch Hill, Finsbury Park, London, N.4. Keightley, Walter Maurice, 29, Melton Road, W. Bridgford, Nottinghern. Lennox, John Gordon, Rose Bank, Dunnikier Road, Kirkcaldy, Fife. Martin, John ThomaC;, 1, Ascot Road, Stirchley, Birmingham. Northam, Reginald Henry, H.Sc. (Lond.), 6, Stracey Road, Karlesden, London, N.W.10.Peel, John Buttery, 2, Chesterfield. Road, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Pollett, William Francis Ogilvie, 2, Greenham Road, Muswell Hill, London, N.lO. Puraer, Ernest Grenville, 47, Grosvenor Park, Camberwell, I,ondon, S.E.6. Smde, Cyril Austin, 5, Tydraw Place, Roath Park, Cardiff. Spencer, Geoffrey, 18, Bournville Avenue, Heaton Chapel, Stockport. Spilhaus, Karl Wilhelm, University College Hall, Ealing. London, W.5. Sullivan, Miss Norah, 11 1, Lebanon Road, Croydon, Surrey. DEATH. Fellow. Brown, Horace Tabberer, F.R.S. Change of Name. Jack Fritz to Firth. Associate. LOCAL SECTIONS Fellows and Associates who have not already joined a Local Section are invited to communicate with the Hon. Secretaries of the Local Sections within their respective districts.Sections. Hon. Secretaries. Birmingham and Midlands: C. J. House, B.Sc., A.R.C.S., A.I.C., 38, Edmund Road, Saltley, Birmingham. Bristol and South Western A. W. M. Wintle, F.I.C., 170, NewbridgeCounties: Road, St. Anne’s Park, Bristol. Cape of Good Hope : Edinburgh and East of J. Adam Watson, A.C.G.I., F.I.C., 22, Scotland : Polwarth Gardens, Edinburgh. Glasgow and West of Scot-Dr. W. M. Cumming, F.I.C., Royal land : Technical College, Glasgow. Huddersfield: T. A. Simmons, B.Sc., F.I.C., 27, LyndaleAvenue, Birkby, Huddersfield. Ireland (Belfast) : William Honneyman, B.Sc., F.I.C., York Street Flax Spinning Co., Ltd., Belfast. ,, (Dublin): Dr. A. G. G. Leonard, F.I.C., 18, BelgraveRoad, Dublin. Leeds Area: Dr.R B. Forster F.I.C., Dept. of Colour Chemistry and Dyeing, The University, Leeds. Liverpool and North John Hanley, F.I.C., 7, University Road, Western : Bootle, Liverpool. London and South-Eastern G. S. W. Marlow, B.Sc., F.I.C., The Institute Counties: of Chemistry, 30, Russell Square, London, w.c.1. Manchester and District: Dr. Albert Coulthard, F.I.C., 58, Burton Road, West Didsbury, Manchester. Newcastle-on-Tyne and C. J.H. Stock, B.Sc., F.I.C., County Analyst’s North-Eaat Coast : Office, Darlington, Co. Durham. South Wales: Cecil W. Wood, A.I.C., c/o The National Oil Refineries, Skewen, Glam. Malaya : R. 0. Bishop, M.B.E., A.I.C., Department of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. Institute of Chemistry Students’ Association (London).Hon.Secretary :G.G.S. PULLEN,22, Kent House Road, Sydenham, S.E.26. INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY BENEVOLENT FUND, Founded in 1920 as a memorial to Fellows, Associates and Students who died in the service of their country,1914-1 9 18. Contributions may be forwarded to The Hon. Treasurer, BENEVOLENTFUND,INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY, 30, RUSSELLSQUARE, W.C.l.LONDON,


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