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The Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal and Proceedings. 1925. Part I




期刊: Journal and Proceedings of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland  (RSC Available online 1925)
卷期: Volume 49, issue 1  

页码: 1-70




年代: 1925




出版商: RSC


数据来源: RSC



THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. FOUNDED, 1877. INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 1885. JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS. 1925. PART I. Issued under the supervision of the Publications Committee. RTCJHARD B. PILCHER, I?t~gisfi*arand Sccrelary . 30, RUSSELLSQUARE, 1V.C. 1.LONDON, F cbYZIn~y, 1925. Publications Committee, 1924-25 T. SLATER PRICE (Chairman), G. G. HENDERSON (President), ARCHIBALD A. BOON, F. D. CHATTAWAY, R. LESLIE COLLETT, W. R. FEARON, R. H. GREAVES, A. J. HALE, C. A. F. HASTILOW, PATRICK H. KIRKALDY (T~~casu~~cr). ANDREW MORE, L. G. PAUL, B. D. PORRITT, W. D. ROGERS, GEORGE TATE, FORSYTH J. WILSON. Report of the Council (1924-1 925). To be submitted to the Fellows und Associates of the Institute at the Forty-seventh Annual General Aleeting, to be held on Monday, 2nd March, 1925.I. THE ROLL OF THE INSTITUTE. During the twelve months under review, the Council has elected 81 new Fellows (of whom 57 were Associates and I a Registered Student), and 337 new -4ssociates (of whom 139 were Registered Students), and have admitted 189 new Students. The Council records, with regret, the death of 26 Fellows, 7 Associates and 2 Students. Fellows : ROBERTEuwaitu ALISON. HAELOLD BAILEY.JAMES MONTAGUEKELWAYBAMBER. J’KRCIVAL GEORGEWYKEHAM BAYLY. SIR GEORGE THOMASBEILBY,F.R.S., Past President. CHICHESTERALEXANDERBELT,. ERNESTBENTZ. WALTER GEOFFXEY BLACK. HERBERTHENRY DAINS. BIL~.JAMES DOBBIE,P.K.S., Past President.JOHNSTON JOHN BEACONSFIELD GALL.WILLIAM GREAVES. CECIL NAPIER HAKE. OTTO HEHNER. ROBERT HELLON. DOUGLASHERMAN. THOMASJABTIESON. GEORGEDOWNING F.R.S.LIVE~U, ~VILLIAM RAY. GEORGIC STOKES.NAYLOR SANUELTEMPLETON. JAMESMILN THOMSON. ALBERTEDWINTrrcrc~m. JULIUSWERTIIEIMER. QUIRIN WIRTZ. JOSEPH!I!URNEY WOOL). Associates : HENRYGALVIN BJWKEIL LINCOLNWYCIIEBLEY&:VANS. ROBERT GILLESPIE. BENJAMINHARDMAN. JOHN MARTINDALX.RUTHVEN GEORGEMARK TINCKNELL. WILLIAMJOHNWILLIAMS. Students : ROBERTWILLIAM!MURRAY THOMSON. WILIXAMWARP. 4 The resignations of 8 Fellows, II Associates, and 54Students have been accepted, and the names of 47 Students have been removed from the Register in accordance with the By-Laws.The licgister contains, at the date of this Keport, the names of 1685 I;ellows, 3023 Associates, and 812 Students. The number of members has increased by 309;the number of Students has decreased by 50. 2. THE COUNCIL, COMMITTEES, cY: REPRESENTATIVES. The C,ouncil has held 12 Meetings; the Committees, Boards and Sub-committees have held 70 Meetings. COMMITTEES ARU ~rIAIlUblEN. 13cncvolent Fund. Committee .. The Hon. Treasurer. Finance and House. . .. .. The Hon. Treasurer. General Purposes .. .. .. The President. Lectures and Library .. .. Dr. T. Slater Price, F.R.S., V.-l’. Legal and Parliamentary .. .. Prof. Arthur Smithells, C.M.G., F.R.S., V.-P. A-ominations, Examiiiations . .I The President. and Institutions . . .. ..j Patrick H. Kirkaldy. Hon. Il’reuswer, Vice-Chairinun. Public Appointments .. .. F. R. Bolt,on. Publications .. .. .. Dr. T. Slater Price, F.E.S., V.-1’. Special Purposes . . .. .. The President. Joint Advisory Committee with the 1. The President. Board of Education .. .*! The Institute has been represented on various public and quasi-public bodies as follows :-The President-Committeo for Appointment of Temporary Assistants, Government Laboratory; Federal Council for Pure and Applied Chemistry. Tho President attended the Celebratioiis of thc Corning of Ageof the University of Leeds and Jubilee of the Yorkshire C’ollege of Science. Ah. A. Chastori Chapman, V.-P.,Po-operatccl with tho Presidents of other professional institutions iii the representations made to the Prime Minister with regartl to thc3 irnproverncnt of the status of members of their professions who are engagetl in the Civil Service.Mr. Chapman also scrvod on the Harrison Memorial Prize Committee. Sir IVilliam A. Tilden, has continued to represent Chemistry on the Council of Medical and Allied Services, Ministry of Health. Dr. J. F. Tocher, has continued to serve 011 the Consultative Council of tho Scottish Roartl of Health. Thc Yrcsitlent,, with Messrs. I+’ T. IJurgps, A. Chnstori Chapman, J. T. Duiiii, G. Nevi11 Huntly, (2. T. Morgan, G. H. Perry, R. H. Pickard, and E. JV. Voelcker, have represented the Institute on the Joint Committee for the Standardisation of Scientific Glassware and Sub-Committees thereof.Dr. George McGowan and Mr. S. E. Melling-Conference on h!tethods of Sewage Analysis, Ministry of Health. 5 RLr. Ifor.atio f<iillitiityi~~uritl Mr. \\7illittJii J1iii:iid) -C’ouf(wrice 011 Patent OfYico Prorecliirc.. 11.11.. fhlhiityic rcpreseiitctl the In-stitute 011 the Deputation to the Controller-Gener~lof Patents. Sir Herbort Jackson, Mr. Ir:riiest M. Hawkitis, Mr. C:. Nevill Huntly, the Registrar anti the Assistant Secret,nry--l~eputation with representatives of the Institute of Physics to tlu: Board of Trade on the Qualifications of Gas Examiners. Prof. C. 13. Desch-British Engineering Standards Association : Sectional Committee on Cement; Sub-Committee on Slag Cement.Mr. Frank Harbord-British Engineering Standards Association : Sectional Committee on Cement; and Aircraft Sub-committee on Chemicals. Dr. James Watson-British Engineering Standards Association : Sub-committee on Sand-lime Bricks; Sub-Committee on Clay,Glassware, and Silica Ware; Sub-committee on Slag Cement. Dr. Arthur Harden--Library Committee of the Chemical Society. Dr. J. J. Fox-British Engineering Rtanclarcls Associa tion : Aircraft Sub-committee on Chemicals; Siib-Committee for the formulation of Standards for Hydrochloric Arid, Sodium Chloride, and Zinc, whose report was submitted to t-he Union lnternationsle at Copenhagen, in June. Prof. J. W. Hinchley and Mr. G. Nevill Huntly--Committee of the Institiition of Civil Engineers, on Heal, Rnginc and Boiler Trials.The Registrar--lncorI,oi.atecl Soc ichty of Hcsttlmasters 1l:mploy- ment Committee, Ministry of Lnbo~ir; Organ isiiig Committw for Section 26 (Chemistry and Chemical Industry), 13ritisli 1l:mpirc Exhibition. The Kegistrar attended Opening of the Sir \Villiarn Dunn’s School of Bio-chemistry, Cambridge. The Assistant Secretary-The Chemical Trades AdvisoryCommittee and the Chemical Trades Examination Board of the Union of Lancashire and Cheshire Institutes; acted as Secretary to ths Suh-Committee on Stamlards for Hydrochloric Acid, Sodinm Chloride, and Zinc, and to the Joint Committee on tlic Stanclnrtl;c.ntion of Scientific Glassware. The Council was asked by the Ministry of Agricultiire and Fisheries to appoint a representative of the Institute to serve on an Advisory Committee to the Standing Conirnittee on Rivers Pollution, but the Fellow selected could not Iw spared from his official duties.In view of the circumstance that several well-qualifiecl chemists were already members of the Advisory Committee and that the Ministry was unable to defray the expenses of a representative of the Institute, the question has not been further pursued. The Council feels that when representatives, having special knowledge and experience, are asked to give their services on important enquiries they should at least have their expenses defrayed. 6 3. FINANCE AND HOUSE COMMITTEE. The financial statements for the year 1924 are attached (PP.20-24)-The arrangement of the statement of receipts has been modified in order to show the amount of revenue actually available (49,903 6s. 9d.)-apart from the following :-the balance brought forward from 1923, the fees which have been retained on applications under consideration at the close of the year, and the entrance fees and life compositions which are due for investment. Similarly, under expenditure, the ordinary items are shown to amount to E9,359 8s. 3d.; the items which relate to 1923 have been separated and certain expenses have been distributed over more than one year. Thus, the Council, having decided to publish the Register every other year, has directed the Committee to charge a moiety of the account to the ycar 1924 and the second moiety to the year 1925; and having decided to publish ''Official Chemical Appointments " every third year, one-third of the account will be debited to each of the years 1924, 1925 and 1926.In the report for the year 1923-1924the Council showed that investments had been made amounting to L2,725 8s. II~. while the sum then due for investment was E1,781 11s ~od.---an excess of E943 17s. ~d.During 1924 a sum of LZ,I~I6s. (consisting of Entrance Fees LI,034 ss., Life Compositions 7S127 IS. and the bequest of the late Edward Kiley EI,OOO)became due for investment. The actual amount invested was &1,278 3s. Id.-(Purchase of Stock k1,167 14s. gd. and Redemption Premium EIIO 8s. 4d.) Taking into account the sum of L943 17s. 11-k.invested in advance in 1923, the sum invested, beyond the prescribed amount, during 1924, was L60 14s. zd. ~OhlPATHEFOLLOWING IS AN APPROXIMATE LClSON OF !UHK I'OYITION OF THE INSTITUTEAT THE CLOSE OW 1923 AND 1'354. f 9. (1. c Y d ' c 9. cl. ~Balance from 193 .. .. 119 k H' , Balnncc,at end 311!!"4 .. .. 733 3 7 Value of Inyest-Value of Inveqt-iiients Dec..,Jl,1923 12041 10 0 inentci at end of Redemption Fund 419 11 8 I 1!124.. .. . . . . 1 _____ lW\t 1 8 Redemption Fiintl Accountq due to tht. ti1 3Institute .. .. 146 3 6 1 i\rcount.;diie ,. .. .. .. 11129 i 3 1 __-___ 13029 13 9 ' 1-19%312 1 Less Liabllities 1923 .. . . 16% -5 8 Less Liahilitiri ., .. .. H52 19 4--1 11401 8 I ,Ap reriationduring1984 ,. .. .. zGGY 5 8 , 524070 13 9 -_I_ I 7 The Staff Insurance Scheme, for which provision was made at the last Annual General Meeting, is in operation.Having in view the desirability of encouraging the registration of students and reducing to some extent the expense incurred on election to the Associateship, the Council proposes to submit to the Annual General Meeting a motion to the effect that the entrance fee for those Associates who, having been registered as Students of the Institute for not less than two years, are elected to the Associateship within one year of completing the prescribed course of training be reduced to one guinea. 4. THE BENEVOLENT FUND COMMITTEE. The Committee is glad to be able to report that, with the help of grants and loans from the Fund, eleven members have been assisted until they have been able to seciire appointments and to re-establish themselves in professional work; six have secured work of a temporary nature.Assistance has been continued as required to ten cases which came under notice in 1923, and grants have been made to twelve new and urgent cases which, under the care of Local Sections, will require further help during the present year. The accounts for 1923 are attached. The statement shows that the Committee has been called upon to make grants beyond the total amount subscribed for current purposes and that only a small balance remained on the current account at the close of the year; further, that the Committee has advanced loans to the sum of L280 from money given by benefactors for the purpose of establishing a capital fund.The Council was requested by a Local Section to consider the advisability of instituting a small annual compulsory levy for the Benevolent Fund; but apart from the fact that such action would be zzltrn vircs, the suggestion appeared to the Council to be against the spirit in which the fund should be administered. The Committee has under consideration a scheme for the provision of annuities to members who are incapacitated from the practice of their profession. It has been decided that the present invested assets of the Benevolent Fund valued approximately at L780 be reserved primarily for the Annuity Fund; that donations received be invested for that fund, and that the income therefrom be devoted, in the first place, to annuities, but that any surplus be available for current needs, if necessary.8 The Committee, having regard to the fact that the demands on the fund during the past year have barely been met by the subscriptions for current expenses, repeats the desire that heads of laboratories, in which a number of chemists are employed, should encourage group contributions, and the suggestion that Fellows and Associates who are unable to make larger contri- butions should send-say 5s. or 2s. 6d. annually in order to enable the Committee to deal adequately with all appeals received. 5. GEISERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE. The General Purposes Committee-which consists of the Council in Committee-has reported on several matters arising from the Conference held in Liverpool in 1923,to which reference is made later in this report (p.17). The Committee has advised on certain modifications of the Rules of Local Sections and of the Students’ Association which have been adopted by the Council. Desiring to meet the wishes of a group of members in South Africa, the Council decided to sanction the formation of a Section in the Union, leaving open the question of the name of the Section until the members concerned had submitted rules for approval. In making this decision, the Council had due regard to the existence of the South African Chemical Institute and had no intention of creating a body which would, in any sense, compete with the existing Institute in South Africa.The Council regrets that this movement gave rise to misapprehension. The correspondence which has passed has been published in the Journal. The Council hopes that eventually a satisfactory understanding will be reached between the parties concerned. The Manchester Local Section has approached the Council suggesting that the necessary steps be taken to obtain government registration of qualified chemists. The Council, having been informed, however, that the IIanchester Section has invited other Local Sections to express their views on the matter, has postponed further consideration of the question until the opinions of other Sections have been received. In addition, the Committee has dealt with a number of other questions of importance which have come to the notice of the Institute.The Correspondence which passed between the Presidents of the Chartered Professional Bodies and the then Prime Ninister 9 regarding the status of professional scientific Civil Servants has been published in the JOURNAL. (Part 11. p. 119; Part V. p. 254-55.) That the view of the late Ministry inclined to the appointment of members of the clerical and administrative class to the control of Technical departments was confirmed in a measure by the remarks made by Mr. Sydney Webb (then President of the Board of Trade) at a Conference on “The Place of Science in Government,” which was held, under the auspices of the British Science Guild, at the British Empire Exhibition in May, when he advocated “the principle of lay administration tempered by expert advice ” and leaving “the control of policy and the ultimate word to the layman.” The letter received from the Chancellor of the Exchequer in October was non-committal, although it went so far as to say that there was no bar to the appointment of any Civil Servant to be permanent head of any of the great public depart- ments, and indicated that the object of the Ministers, in filling these posts, was to get the best men wherever Lhey might be found.The whole question, however, will be watched by the Institutions concerned with a view to securing the most efficient control of the Scientific Departments of the Civil Service.The Council came to an agreement with the Textile Institute with regard to the petition of the latter Institute for a Rclyal Charter, in order to avoid the duplication of the objects of thL two Institutes, especially in relation to the holding of examina-tions whereby qualifications might be conferred in respect OJ the professional practice of Chemistry. The General Purposes Committee was also requested to consider a question raised by a Fellow regarding the insertion of the names of members in directories and, in particular, the Buff Book : Trade and Commercial Directory for London, published by the Business Telephone Directories, Ltd., for the benefit of subscribers to the London Telephone Exchange System. Feeling that it was undesirable that members should pay for the insertion of their names in directories, the Council has come to an agreement with the Proprietors of the Buff Book to insert a list of the members of the Institute in independent practice in London, headed with the name of the Institute as at present in Kelly’s Post Office Directory.10 6. LECTURES AND LIBRARY COMMITTEE. Dr. J. T Dunn’s lecture on “The Progress of Chemistry in Public Affairs,” was delivered at the Institute on 14th March, 1924, and issued during April to the Members and Students. The Committee had in tended making arrangements for the delivery of a lecture on “Chemistry and Health,” but having regard to the arrangements made by the Manchester Section for the delivery of a lecture by Sir William Willcox, decided, with the cordial concurrence of the Section, to ask Sir William to allow his address on “The Influence of Chemical Research on Medicine and Forensic Medicine,” which he delivered at Manchester on 7th November, to be published and issued to the Members and Students.The address was circulated with Part VI. of the Journal, at the end of the year. LIBRARY.-The Committee has pursued the policy of restricting purchases for the Library of the Institute to books of reference, recommended by the Examiners, for the use of candidates during the examinations. The Library fund has been merged in the General Account. The Council has presented to the Tokyo Imperial University Library a set of the Lectures and other publications of the Institute to replace those lost in the great earthquake which occurred in Japan in 1923.The thanks of the Council are accorded to the Chemical Society for the continued use of the Library of the Society by Fellows and Associates of the Institute and also by Registered Students. The privilege has been very greatly appreciated. On the recommendation of the Finance Committee and the Library Committee, the Council increased the contribution of the Institute to the Library of the Society to E250. 7.-LEGAL AND PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. As the result of correspondence with the Controller General of Patents with regard to the procedure of his Department, a Deputation representing the Engineering Joint Council, the Profession of Chemistry, the Profession of Chartered Patent Agents, and the Bar, was received by the Controller and his senior officers on the 5th January.Mr. Horatio Ballantyne, who represented the Institute, subsequently reported that the deputation was received very sympathetically, and that it was anticipated that satisfactory 11 results would follow from the discussion. The Council learns, however, that the difficulties have not been entirely eliminated, and that it may be necessary to pursue the matter further. 8. NOMINATIONS, EXAMINATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS COMMITTEE. The Committee has held 23 meetings, and has dealt with 727 applications in addition to many letters of preliminary enquiry. Several candidatcs have been interviewed by the Committee or by Local Interviewing Committees, to whom the Coiincil is indebted for reports.The Council acknowledges its indebtedness to the Advisory Committee in India for reports on a considerable number of applications received from that part of the Empire. $ summary of the applications received and considered, with the decisions of the Council thereon, is given below:- Application,?for Admission to the J91erdentship: Accepted . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 189 Declined .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3 Total . . .. .. .. .. 192 Applications for Adni ission to Excmination .for Assorinteship : Accepted .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 60 Declined .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 Total .. .. .. .. .. 62 Applicationm for Election to the Associateship : Accepted (including 36 examined) .... .. 337 Declined .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 Referred for Examination .. .. .. .. 32 Total . . .. .. .. .. 378 -Applicaiions for Admission to Eramination for Fellowsh,ip : Accepted .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7 Declined . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 Total .. *. .. .. .. 7 Applications from Associates for Election to Fellowship : Accepted (including 6 examined) .. .. . . 57 Declined .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6 Total . . .. .. .. .. 63 - 12 Applications from Non-Associates for Election to the Fellowsh,ip : Accepted (including 1 examined)Declined .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24 1 Total .. .. .. .. .. 25 EXAMINATIONS.-EXa'nin2LtiOnS were held in April and September, 1924, and in January, 1925.SVMJIARY OF RESTTLTW. Associateship : ~XAMIYED. PASSED. (Present Regiilations) General Chemistry .. 92 34 (Previous Regulations) *Branch (b) Metallurgical Chemistry . . 1 1 i) 0Branch (d) Organic Chemistry .. 1 Branch (e) Chemistrv (and Micro-scopy)of Food Itnd Drugs 1 Fellowship; . Branch A. Inorganic Chemistry .. 1 Branch R. Physical Chemistry .. 0 Branch C. Organic Chemistry .. 0 Branch D. Agricultural Chemistry . . 23 Branch E. Chemistry (and Bljcroscopy)of Foods and Drugs Branch F. Biochemistry .. .. 0 Branch G. Cheniical Engineering .. 1 Branch H. General and Analytical Chemist,ry . . .. 3 115 44 ~ * No Entries in Rraiiches (a) (c) (f). The thanks of the Council have been accorded to Fellows who have acted as additional examiners or assisted the Board of Examiners, to Assessors who have examined the papers received from Associates applying for the Fellowship, and also to the authorities of Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, and of the Royal School of Mines for the use of laboratories.In view of the difficulty of setting a comprehensive examina- tion on the whole of chemistry in which the candidate can do himself justice, the Examination for the Associateship now includes three written papers instead of two. Bedford College for Women and Royal Holloway College have been added to the list of institutions recognised for the training of candidates for the examinations of the Institute. Applications from several institutions for recognition have been received, but no other addition has been made to the list.13 The Council has arranged a conference with the professors of chemistry in the universities of Great Britain and the heads of departments of applied chemistry at institutions of university standing to consider the courses for degrees or diplomas in applied chemistry with respect to their educational position in comparison with that of similar courses in the schools of chemistry, and, further, to consider to what extent such degrees or diplomas may be accepted by the Institute as exempting from the examination for the Associateship. The admission ceremony, at which newly elected Fellows and Associates are presented to the President or to a Chairman of a Local Section, has become a part of the recognised procedure of the Council and Section meetings.It is found, however, that in some cases the newly elected members find it difficult to attend the Local Sections and in consequence have not received their certificates until some time after their election. Candidates who are living in remote districts or who are working under conditions which render it difficult for them to attend meetings are required to show that there is good ground for exempting them from attending to receive their certificates. The Council is very desirous that, wherever it is possible, every new member should attach himself to a Local Section and take an active interest in its proceedings. 9. PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE.The JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGShave been published in six parts. Dr. Dunn’s lecture was published in April, and that of Sir William Willcox, delivered before the Manchester Section, at the close of the year. The Register was published in March, and the fifth edition of Official Chemical Appointments in the same month. The Committee has continued to receive and publish reports from Local Sections, but has been obliged to restrict, except in special circumstances, the space allotted to such reports to about one page for each meeting. The Council has endorsed the recommendation of the Committee that reports should, as a general rule, be restricted to matters of professional interest and that those dealing with technical matters should be offered to Chemistry and Indmtry and the technical press. 14 10.PUBLIC APPOINTMENTS COMMITTEE. The Committee has continued to watch the proceedings of local authorities with regard to official chemical appoint-ments, but it has not had occasion to recommend action in any special case. It has, however, obtained Counsel's opinion on the power of the Institute to require its members to conform reasonably to the standard of fees. After careful consideration the Committee recommended to the Council that when any official position was announced at inadequate remuneration, the present policy of approaching the authorities concerned should be pursued. Another matter which has come under the notice of the Committee is the practice of soizle Government Departments and other authorities of requesting the Institute and similar professional bodies to appoint representatives to render gratuitous services in connection with Committees appointed to investigate matters of public importance.Although the Committee felt that it was difficult for such institutions to refuse to aid Government Departments in any matter of public concern when asked to do so, the practice appears to be one which calls for a conference among representatives of the recognised professional bodies in order that they should make a joint representation of their views to the Government Departments concerned. The Ministry of Agriculture having appointed an Advisory Committee on the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act, 1906, the Council, on the recommendation of the Public Appointments Committee, has suggested the desirability of the co-option of an Official Agricultural Analyst who is fully acquainted with the working of the Act in England and Wales and has been appointed by a local authority.At the same time, the Council expressed the opinion that such an Official Agricultural Analyst possessing a special knowledge of the purports and administration of the Act should not only be represented on the Advisory Committee, but on any future statutory committee dealing with these matters. 11. JOINT COMMITTEE WITH THE INSTITUTE OF' PHYSICS ON THE QUALIFICATIONS OF GAS EXAMINERS. A report on the proceedings of a Joint Deputation of representatives of the Institute of Chemistry and of the Institute 15 of Physics to the Board of Trade with regard to the qualifications of Gas Examiners wats published in JOURNAL, Part 111.The Deputation was received by Mr. Alexander, Yarlia- mentary Secretary, who stated that the suggestions of the deputation indicated the necessity of statutory powers being granted by Parliament, but that the Board was not in a position to promote immediate legislation and, in the event of such legislation being contemplated, would have to consult the local authorities. As an illustration of the attitude of local authorities towards appointments of this character may be mentioned an advertise- ment by the County Borough of Preston for a Gas Examiner who was required to combine his position with that of Inspector of Meters and Lighting Superintendent at a salary of LI~O per annum plus Civil Service bonus amounting to E88 15s.5d. In this case, the Committee urged that the qualifications required for a Gas Examiner were not such that the appointment should be associated with the other duties referred to. The Council confirmed this view, which was communicated to the local authority. In another case, that of the appointment of a Gas Examiner for the Corporation of Guildford, the Council learned that the post had been filled without being advertised. The local authority was informed, therefore, of the opinion of the Council that any technical appointment for which it was essential that a person of high professional standing should be appointed should be publicly made known, because as a general rule the members of recognised professional institutions are debarred from becoming candidates in the absence of any public announcement or other invitation to apply for such posts.12. NATIONAL CERTIFICATES IN CHEMISTRY. Arrangements for holding examinations for National Certificates in Chemistry have been completed with the Scottish Board of Education, and negotiations with the Ministry of Education for Northern Ireland are in progress with a view to the adoption of a scheme on lines similar to those adopted in co-operation with the Board of Education for England and Wales. The Report of the Assessors on the Examinations for National Certificates in 1924 in England and Wales, published in the 16 JOURNAL (Part IV.p. 230) is commended to the special notice of teachers of chemistry in technical schools. 13. SPECIAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE. Having regard to the discussions in the public press and elsewhere which took place in the early part of 1924 upon the position of the British Dyestuffs Industry and the possible negotiations between the British Dyestuffs Corporation and the Interessen Gcmeinschaf t , the Special Purposes Committee was asked to discuss the matter in the national interests and in the interests of chemists. The Committee prepared a Memorandum which was published by the authority of the Council as a separate pamphlet in March. The Memorandum, the text of which was printed in Part 11.of the JOURNAL, was forwarded to thc Board of Trade, to Members of Parliament, and to the Press. 14. LOCAL SECTIONS. The continued activity of the Local Sections has been shown by the reports of their meetings which have appeared in the JOUKNAI,. A new Section has been inaugurated for the Far East, and the Council has sanctioned the formation of a Section in South Africa, but the name of the new Section has not yet been determined, and its rules have not yet been submitted for approval. The President has visited Local Sections at Birmingham, Edinburgh, and Manchester, in addition to attending meetings of the Glasgow Section. The Registrar has visited Glasgow and Manchester; and the Assistant Secretary has visited all the Sections in Great Britain, except Liverpool and South Wales.The Students’. Association (London) organised a very success- ful visit of Registered Students of the Institute, numbering about 350, to the British Empire Exhibition, in July, and has throughout the year provided lectures, debates and visits to works for the benefit of its members. The Association is greatly indebted to the companies and firms who have arranged the visits, and have entertained them on these occasions. 15. HONORARY CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. The Council again records its thanks to the Honorary Corresponding Secretaries for their help to the Council and Officers of the Institute during the year. 17 Major B. J. Eaton has succeeded Dr.Frankland Dent as Honorary Corresponding Secretary of the Institute for the Far East. 16 APPOlNTMENTS REGISTER. The Appointments Register is still used by a very large number of members. It is satisfactory to note that notwith- standing the fact that the roll of the Institute has increased by nearly a thousand during the past three years, the number actually out of appointment is less than in 1922. The number without appointments at the date of this report is 18 Fellows and 141 Associates-compared with 24 Fellows and 173 Associates at the correkponding date in 1yz4, i.c. 3.3 per cent. as compared with 4.5 per cent. of the total membership. The number of chemists employed is therefore increasing. The Council will be glad if Fellows will inform the Registrar of any suitable vacancies for qualified chemists or assistants which may come to their notice.I~.-CONFERENCES. The matters referred to the Council by the Liverpool Conference held in October, 1923,have been dealt with so far as possible. The further consideration of the desirability of forming a Federation of Men of Science and a General Science Council has been postponed pending a Conference-which the proposers intended to initiate-between the Presidents of the professional institutions and learned bodies concerned. The enquiry addressed to the Local Sections with regard to the proposal that members of the Institute should be authorised to wear a distinctive gown revealed no general enthusiasm for the idea, On the question of securing facilities for students in training to obtain an insight into works practice and technical operations, the Council formed the opinion that any possible steps to secure such facilities should be taken by the authorities of Universities and Colleges with the co-operation of members of the Local Sections in their respective districts .The resolutions referring to the Benevolent Fund elicited the fact that in suitable circumstances the fund was available for loans and, as a direct result, special assistance was rendered to Irish ex-service chemists. 18 The method of electing the new Council was considered, but in view of the general tone of the discussion and the facts given at the Conference, the Council was of opinion that no further immediate action was necessary, particularly as the present method of electing the Council has only been in operation for four years.The result of the discussion was to alter the form of the balloting paper in order to give members some information with regard to the candidates nominated for election. With regard to Publicity, the Council advocates the methods adopted by the Glasgow and West of Scotland Section which are still being successfully pursued. There is good reason to believe that other Sections will be able to adopt similar methods in the near future. The question of the relations between the Institute and the British Association of Chemists was held to be part of the general question of the proposal to form a Federation of Men of Science.The Local Sections were invited to express their views on the holding of a Conference during 1924and to suggest subjects forzdiscussion thereat; but as no strong desire was expressed that such a meeting should be held, the arrangements were postponed. The new Council will be asked to consider the matter. 30, RUSSELL SQUARE, LONDON,W.C. 1. 29th January, 1926. 19 REPORT OF AUDITORS. We hereby report that we have examined the books and accounts of the Institute of Chemistry for the year ended 31st December, 1924, and have compared with the vouchers the entries therein, and certify that the following statements are correct as shown by the books. Certificates from the Bank of England and the Westminster Bank, Ltd., for investments held by them respectively for the Institute at the above date have been produced. CHAS.T. ABELL \ Hun. Auditors, wM. H. SIMMONS j 1924-1925. DAVID HENDERSON, Chartered Accozmtant. 31st Jawary, 1925. 20 THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN ANU IRELAND. 21 Founded 1887. Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1885. STATEMENT AND EXPENDITUREFOR THE YEARENDED 31s~DECEMBER,OF RECEIPTS 1924. __I __ -____ _____~ __ __-___~ GENERAL ACCOUNT 1923. RECEIPTS. e s. d. E. s. d. 1923. EXPENDITURE. S s. d. S s. cl. iubscriptions-Printing, Stationery, Office Books, etc.-2,392 19 0 Fellows’ . . .. .. 2,523 3 0 489 13 4 Journal. Part VI., 1923;Parts I.-V., 1954 524 13 8 4,073 9 1 Associates’ .... .. 4,407 19 11 463 3 0 Other Printing, Stationery, etc. .. 405 7 8 462 10 0 Students’ .. .. .. 411 5 0 --930 1 4 Postage____-7,342 7 11 173 4 3 Journal .. .. .. .. 200 9 8 lividends and Interest- 430 13 10 Ordinary .. .. .. .. 477 18 7 ($512 4 9) Gross .. 637 19 5 12 10 0 Stamp Duty on Receipts . . .. -678 8 3395 16 11 (El16 7 10) LessTax .. 91 15 1 Register (Moiety) .. .. .. .. 270 11 2 546 4 4 300 0 0 Rent .. .. .. .. .. 300 0 0 13 18 3 {ale of Publications . . .. .. .. 31 17 4 Official Chemical Appointments (One Thirdj ’ 212 1 6 573 7 1 Rates and Taxes .. .. .. .. 487 3 413 1 li lundry Receipts . . .. .. .. 22 5 6 a.99 5 1 Insurance .. .. .. .. 114 9 5 725 8 C ‘Iire of Laboratories and Rooms .. . . 481 18 0 213 9 2 Repairs, House, and Furnishing .... 172 17 4 1,032 3 C Zxamination and Assessment Fees . . . . 942 13 0 3,815 19 9 Salaries and Wages .. .. .. .. 3,900 15 3 47 12 0 Advertisements .. .. .. .. .. 62 11 0 306 19 C lsppointments Register .. .. .. 315 14 6 344 5 9 Gas, Water, Light, and Fuel .. .. .. 365 3 6 148 11 4 ldvertisements in Journal .. .. .. 168 15 0 31 17 0 Telephone .. .. .. .. .. 28 5 4 3alan.ce of Library Fund Account, 1923 .. 51 11 2 Examiners, Assessors and Assistants (Fees 553 1 3 and Expenses) .. .. .. . . 595 0 6 162 3 9 Apparatus and Materials .. 136 7 3 175 0 0 Library (including 5250 to &emical’bociety) 353 12 1 134 5 4 Local Sections .. .. .. .. .. 217 7 0 125 0 0 Donation .. .. .. .. .. 75 0 0 51 19 8 Miscellaneous .... .. .. .. 41 3 3 130 7 5 Officers’ Travelling Expenses, Fares, etc. .. 120 0 1 21 0 0 Auditor’s Honorarium .. .. .. 26 5 0 104 7 9 Lectures .. .. .. .. .. .. 55 6 0 14 3 11 Legal Expenses . . .. .. .. .. Members of Council Travelling Expenses 35 14 8 (Reserved 65350, unexpended $213 14s. 5d.) 97 10 11 Staff Assurance. . .. .. .. .. 110 8 9 9,564 15 i 9,903 6 9 8,508 3 0 9,359 8 3 Repairs and House (1923 Account) .. .. 321 12 1 31 4 0 Conference Printing (1923 Account). . .. 119 3 0 276 19 i Balance at 31st December, 1923 . . .. 419 -8 8 35 3 6 Application Fees returned on 1923 Account. . 31 10 0 750 0 t Balance on Deposit .. .. .. .. 110 a 4 Redemption Fund Premium .. .. .. 110 8 4 1,076 13 Entrance Fees- .. .. .. 1,034 6 0 Purchase of S964/3/7 5% War Loan 969 3 9 99! Life Compositions .. .. 127 1 0 Purchase of f2503p%, Conversion Bequest of the late Edward Loan .. .. .. .. 198 11 0 Riley . . .. .. .. 1,000 0 0 2,615 0 7 1,167 14 9 -__---2161 6 0 158 4 9 Office Equipment . . .. .. .. 73 4 6 Fees on applications in abeyance--100 0 0 Dinner Account (1923) .. .. .. 126 0 I Fellowship . . .. .. 109 4 0 Special Honorarium .. .. .. .. 100 0 0 135 19 Associateship . . .. 93 9 0 Balance at 31st December, 1924 733 2 7 ____--202 13 0 Plus Moiety of Register. 1925 270 11 1 37 16 I Fees Retained .. .. .. .. .. 24 3 0 and Two-thirds of ‘‘O.C.A.,” 1925 et 1926.. .. ,. 424 2 10 419 8 8 .__ __-_ 1,427 16 ci $11,977 12 11 $11,977 12 10 $12,710 17 5 STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, 31st Dec., 1924.1923. E s. d. 1923. ;E s. d. 419 8 8 Balance .. .. .. 733 2 7 Subscriptions received in ad-$3,000 Victoria 5% Inscribed vance-3,000 0 0 Stock, 1935-46 .. ..3,060 0 0 30 19 6 Fellows’ 54 12 0 €1,000 New Zealand 476 In- 71 8 1 Associates’ 69 17 0 860 0 0 scribed Stock, 1929 .. 960 0 0 215 0 Students’ 0 15 0 $700 Canada 39% Registered 125 4 0 546 0 0 Stock, 1930-50 .. .. 567 0 0 261 19 6 Applications in abeyance 202 13 0 $500 Metropolitan 30/, Con- 57 15 0 Fees retained . . .. 81 18 0 395 0 0 solidated Stock .. .. 402 10 0 75 0 0 Rent outstanding .. .. 76 0 0 €500 Great Western Railway 55 3 5 Accounts Rendered and due 74 9 11 255 0 0 2+% Debenturestock .. 265 0 0 Accounts outstanding, esti-$1,145 7s.6d. London Mid- mated at 31st December, land & Scottish Railway 1924, including Repairs 904 0 0 4% Preferencestock .. 939 4 1 751 0 4 and alterations, 1923 .. 80 0 0 54,000 5% War Loan 1929- Members of Council travel- *3,025 15 0 47 Inscribed Stock ..4,060 0 0 ling Expenses Fund, 493 15 0 €500 War Savings Certificates 518 15 0 311 5 4 amount unexpended .. 213 14 5 51,000 Kational War Bonds, 18 19 6 Library Fund .. .. 1,050 0 0 1929, Series 4 .. .. 1,055 0 0 Excess of Assets over Lia-71,515 0 0 52,250 Conversion 3404, Stock 1,771 17 6 bilities as at 31st Decem-82 2 3 Sundry Accounts due .. 61 3 2 ber, 1924 .. .. 14,070 13 0 419 11 8 Redemption Fund .. .. 530 0 0 11,401 8 1 12 10 0 Receipt Stamps .. .. 51 I1 2 Library Fund Balance ..$13,029 13 9 €11,923 12 4 323,029 13 9 aE14,923 12 4 *Holding increased by E964 3s. 7d. Cost E969 3s. 9d. t Holdinz incleased bv C250 0s. Od. Cost 8198 11s. Od. The Statement above does not include the value of the lease and prekses of &e Institute, Furniture, Library, Apparatus, etc. The above investments have been ralued at market prices at close of business on 31st Dec., 1924. BENEVOLENT FUND ACCOUNT, for the year ended 31st Dec., 1924. Current Account. 1923. € s. d. 1923. € s. 8. 50 13 6 Balance 1st Dec., 1923 .. 103 3 10 220 11 6 Grants .. .. .. 339 6 3 238 9 6 Subscriptions, 1924 .. 330 11 11 147 Stationery, Postage,etc. . . 35 7 8 Repayment of Income Tax 91 17 6 Balance-Bank 13 1 6 7 6 10 deductedduring1923 .. 7 14 6 11 6 4 In hand 001 Dividends and Interest from Due from Capital 28 10 1 Capital Account .... 36 6 3 Account 90 1 0 103 2 7 -~ -____ €324 19 11 €477 16 6 $324 19 11 €477 16 6 Capital kcount. 1923. € s. d. 1923. E s. d. 152 5 6 Balance 31st Dec., 1923 .. 28 10 4 50 0 0 Loans .. .. .. 280 0 0 141 12 6 Donations, 1924 .. .. 116 18 8 215 7 8 Purchase of Strick during 1923 25 10 4 Balance 31st Dec., 1924 .. 293 18 0 145 9 0 Loans repaid, 1924 . . .. 44 10 0 189 19 0 Debtor balance due to Cur- rent Account .. .. 90 l 0 €280 0 0 5293 18 0 €280 0 0 STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LlABl LIT1 ES, 31st Dec., 1 9 24. ASSETS. LIABILITIES. 1923. E s. d. 1923. E s. d. 28 10 4 Balance on Capital Account 33 12 9 Printing 16 18 9 103 3 10 Balance on Current Account 103 2 7 532 0 0 €533 19s.10d. India 5iob 1932 .. .. .. 539 6 9 E200 5% National UTar Excess of Assets over 210 0 0 Bonds, 1929, Series 4 .. 211 0 0 840 1 5 Liabilities .. .. 836 10 7 €873 14 2 €853 9 4 $873 14 2 €853 9 4 24 .. 25 Proceedings of the Council. DECEMBER, 1924--JANUARY, 1925. The Teaching of Applied Chemistry.-On 30th January, 1925, the Council held a Conference on the Teaching of Applied Chemistry, to which the professors of chemistry in universities of Great Britain and Ireland, the heads of departments of applied chemistry at institutions of university standing and the members of the Board of Examiners of the Institute were invited. The Conference was held by kind permission of the Worshipful Master and Court of the Salters’ Company at the Salters’ Hall, St.Swithin’s Lane, London, and the Salters’ Company kindly entertained the Members who attended the Conference to lunch. The agenda was as follows:- (i) To consider the courses for degrees or diplomas in Applied Chemistry which are available in Great Britain and Ireland, with respect to their educational position in comparison with that of similar courses in the schools of Chemistry. (ii) To consider to what extent such degrees or diplomas may be accepted by the Institute as exempting from the examination for the Associateship. (iii) To consider what modifications, if any, should be intro- duced. The discussion was opened by Professor Arthur Smithells, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Salters’ Institute of Industrial Chemistry; Professor J.W. Cobb, C.B.E., BSc., Professor of Applied Chemistry, Fuels and Metallurgy, The University, Leeds, and Professor J. F. Thorpe, C.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S., Professor of Organic Chemistry, Imperial College of Science and Technology. The views expressed at the Conference will be carefully considered by the Council, and a further report will be published in due course. 26 The Registrar.-On the 1st March, 1925, Mr. Richard l3. Pilcher will have been Secretary of the Institute for thirty years, and Registrar and Secretary for twenty-five years; his actual service with the Institute dates back even three years further to the time when he joined the office as clerk in April, 1892 When Mr.Pilcher was first associated with the lnstitute there wexe 825 Fellows and Associates and 34 Students, whereas at the present time there are 4708 Fellows and Associates and 812 Students. The high esteem in which the profession of chemistry is now held in public affairs is due in very large measure to the un- ceasing work of the Institute during the forty-eight years of its existence. The Council recognising, however, that no small share of the credit should rightly be given to the Registrar, asked the President at the meeting in December last to invite Fellows and Associates to join with them in presenting a suitable memento to the Registrar. At the time of going to press more than 1500 members have sent contributions. The presentation, which will include a roll of the subscribers, will be made at the Annual General Meeting on the 2nd March.On the conclusion of the meeting, the Council with other well-wishers, will entertain Mr. and Mrs. Pilcher and their family to dinner at the Hotel Russell, where, later in the evening, they will hold a reception. Entries in Directories.-Mention is made in the Report of Council of the negotiations which have taken place with the proprietors of the Buff Book, Trade and Commercial Directory for London, with regard to the entry of the names of members of the Institute in independent practice. Many Fellows and Associates of the Institute will recollect that at a Conference held on the 28th February, 1921,it was considered desirable that Fellows and Associates should adopt an uniform practice with respect to the style, the character of the type used, and the particulars given in the entries of their names in published directories, and that departure from that practice should be considered as unprofessional conduct.Incidentally it may be mentioned that the Executive Com- mittee of the General Medical Council has published the infor- mation that the payment for insertion of the name of a medical practitioner, whether with or without typographical display, in a list issued to the public and purporting to be a list of local medical 27 practitioners, which is not open to the whole of the profession without such payment, is not in accordance with professional standards in respect of advertising.In the circumstances, the Council has made arrangements with the proprietors of the Buff Book for the insertion of a list of members in independent practice in London headed with the name of the Institute (as at present in Kelly’s Post Office Directory) with asterisks denoting membership of the Institute, on the understanding that no charge will be made to the members. The Council will entertain similar proposals with regard to similar directories in provincial centres, and has informed the Local Sections to that effect. Meldola Medal.-The Meldola Medal for the year 1924 has been awarded to Leslie Julius Harris, Ph.D. (Cantab.), MSc. (Liv.), A.I.C., and will be presented at the Annual General Meeting.University of Leeds.-The Council has received a letter from the Chancellor, Pro-Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Registrar of the University of Leeds thanking the President of the Institute for participating in the Celebrations of the Jubilee of the Yorkshire College and the Coming of Age of the University and for the Address presented by the President on that occasion. The letter was accompanied by a brochure containing a short account of the growth of the University. Nomination of the Council, 1925-1 926.-The balloting list for the election of the Officers, Council and Censors at the Annual General Meeting on the 2nd March has been prepared and issued to the Fellows and Associates. Members who desire to vote are required to return their voting papers to the Secretary so that they be received at the Institute not later than 4.30 p.m.on Saturday, 28th February. Dr. Henry Phillips and Mr. K. A. Williams have been appointed Scrutineers for this election. Erratum.-In JOURNAL, Part VI., 1924, the record of attendances of Mr. Patrick H. Kirkaldy, Honorary Treasurer, was wrongly printed in the last column-the number of attendances being 31 out of a possible 32. 28 Local Sections. Belfast and District.-A special general meeting of the Section was held on 4th December to consider the Pharmacy and Poisons Bill, Northern Ireland. The Council had requested the Section to express its views on the Bill, the Ministry of Home Affairs for Northern Ireland having asked for the observations of the Council on the measure.The views of the Section were prepared in the form of a memorandum which was forwarded to the Institute for the consideration of the Legal and Parlia- mentary and Public Appointments Committees of the Institute. The views expressed in the memorandum, with some slight modifications, have been embodied in a letter to the Ministry. The Section has received the permission of the Council to offer evidence before a Departmental Commission which has been appointed by the Northern Government to enquire into the Local Government Administration with reference to matters affecting the chemical profession. A special Sub-committee, consisting of members holding the Branch (e) qualification of the Institute, has been appointed to draft the proposed evidence.A precis of the evidence dealing with the administration of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, the Medical Charities Acts, and the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act has been submitted to the Commission and to the CouncJl of the Institute. On the 18th December a meeting of the Section was held in the Chemical Lecture Theatre of Queen’s University, when Dr. R. C. Johnson, Lecturer on Physics, discoursed on the “ Structure of the Atom.” On the zznd January, in the Biology Lecture Theatre at Queen’s University, Prof. James Small lectured before the Section on “Some Aspects of Modern Plant Chemistry.” Birmingham and Midlands.-The Annual Dinner of the Section was held jointly with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry at the Queen’s Hotel, Birmingham, on 13th December.The company numbered nearly a hundred. Prof. G. T. Morgan presided as chairman of both Sections concerned, 29 The President of the Institute and the President of the Society were both present. The toast of the Institute was proposed by Mr. J. T. Bell, President of the Birmingham Pharmaceutical Association. On 2nd February, also at the Queen’s Hotel, Birmingham, a very enjoyable concert took place jointly with the Local Section of the British Association of Chemists. The success of this function was largely due to Messrs. A. W. Knapp and J. R. Johnson, who made the arrangements for the programme. Bristol and South-Western Counties.-Mr.W. F. Fearnside opened an interesting discussion on “Some Inter-national Aspects of the Dye Industry” before the Section on the 6th November, 1924. The Section held its fifth meeting of the current session jointly with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical In- dustry at the University on 8th January, when there was an excellent attendance, including the members of the Bristol Association of Engineers. Mr. M. W. Jones, who occupied the chair, introduced Mr. Stanley Hopkins, of Messrs. Ruth’s Steam Accumulator Co., who read a paper on Steam Accumulation, which was illustrated by many lantern slides. A good discussion followed, in which Messrs. R. Robertson, A. Marsden, and R. D. Littlefield-who proposed the vote of thanks-participated.At the joint meeting held with the Bristol Section of the Society of Chemical Industry on Thursday, 5th February, in Bristol University, Mr. C. J. Waterfall presided over a large attendance, when a paper on “Paints and Paint-making ” was read by Mr. M. W. Jones, Chairman of the Bristol Section of the Society of Chemical Industry. A comprehensive survey of the subject, illustrated by lantern slides, was given and proved of absorbing interest, as evidenced by the discussion in which Messrs. A. Marsden, F. E. Boorne, F. W. Rixon, R. Robertson, R. P. Littler, and others, took part. The Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Jones, which was heartily accorded. The annual dinner was held jointly with the local members of the Society of Chemical Industry and of the Chemical Society, on 14th February.The Institute was represented by Prof. E. C. C. Baly, Vice-president. A report will be published in the next Part of the JOURNAL. 30 Cape Town.-A meeting of chemists resident in the south-western districts of the Cape Province, Union of South Africa, was held on 14th January in the physical-chemistry laboratories of the University of Cape Town. The attendance of seventeen consisted almost entirely of members of the staffs of the Union Division of Chemistry, of the Chemical Department of the University of Cape Town, and six members of the chemical branch of the Cape Explosives Works, Somerset West. Dr. C. F. Juritz, Chief of the Union Division of Chemistry, was voted to the chair, and the meeting, after some preliminaries, proceeded to the consideration of a set of draft rules for a local section of the Institute.These were duly disposed of, and it was decided to request the sanction of Council thereto. An interim committee, consisting of Dr. Juritz (Division of Chemistry), Prof. J. Smeath Thomas (University of Cape Town), and Mr. G. C. Scully (Cape Explosives Works), was appointed to carry on pending receipt of a reply from London. A paper was then read by Dr. E. Newbery, Professor of Physical-chemistry in the University of Cape Town, on “Some inexpensive methods of constructing physico-chemical apparatus. I’ Prof. Newbery demonstrated practically how the various appliances required in the electrometric determination of hydrogen ion concentrations could be at the same time simply and deftly constructed.In addition to exhibiting a large assort- ment of such appliances, he showed other types of “home-made ” apparatus, including a small electric furnace, an apparatus for the determination of nitrates, and numerous smaller articles. After the lecture Prof. Newbery entertained the visitors, and finally an adjournment was made to the physico-chemical research laboratory, where a very enjoyable and instructive evening was brought to a close by witnessing a series of interesting demonstrations. Edinburgh and East of Scotland,-The fourth joint meeting with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry was held on the aand January at the North British Station Hotel under the chairmanship of Dr.Lauder. Three new Associates of the Institute were formally admitted and received their certificates. An address was given by Prof. James Hendrick, of Aberdeen, on “The Potash Industry of Alsace.” Glasgow and West of Scotland.-The “publicity scheme” adopted by this Section has now been in operation for two years, and its success is undiminished. Articles have been published, mainly in the Glasgow Herald, but on occasion in one or other of the evening papers. An appreciation of this work was given recently by Sir Robert Bruce, editor of the Glasgow Herald, when he proposed the toast of “The Profession” at the Ramsay Chemical Dinner in December.Further evidence of its success is shown by the fact that another editor frequently sends enquiries on various technical and scientific subjects to a member of the Sub-committee of the Section, who supplies the desired information. During 1g24,32 articles were published in the Glasgow Herald, and several in the Evening Tinzes. The following articles have appeared in the Glasgow Herald since the publication of the last list in the JOURXAL:-“ Chromium and its Compounds,” by Dr. A. J. Robertson ; “The Time Factor ” and ‘‘Industrial Gases,” by Dr. J. Knox; “Quantum Theory,” by J. Ferguson; “Industrial Supremacy,” by Dr. S. Horwood Tucker; “The Chemical Exhibit at Wembley” and “Food Adulteration,” by J. W. Hawley; “The Story of Nitrogen” and “Stones on the Seashore,” by Prof.R. M. Caven; “The Sulphur Cycle,” by Dr. D. Ellis; “The Nature of Poisoning,” by Dr. W. M. Cumming; “The Atom,” by Dr. R. Christie Smith; “Air,” “The Age of the Alchemists” and “How Chemistry became a Science,” by R. S. Ferrier; “The Quest for Dyestuffs,” by R. M. Xlacaulay; “The Life Process,” by A. E. Caunce; “Glass-making Processes,” by T. C. Mitchell; “Chemistry in relation to Electricity,” by Dr. J. A. Cranston; and “As it was in the Beginning,’’ by R. Burns. Hiiddersfield.-A meeting of the Section was held at the Queen Hotel, Huddersfield, on the 20th January, when the discussion was devoted to the question of the registration of chemists and the desirability of holding a conference.The Section expressed the view that an exploration of the possibility of Government Registration was desirable, and also that a conference should be held in 1925 to include the con- sideration of means of regulating the number of persons admitted to the profession with a view to obviating over-crcwding. On the 3rd February at the Technical College, Huddersfield, an address was given before the Section by Professor H. E. Armstrong, who took as his text “Put that in your pipe and smoke it.” (See p. 36.) Irish Free State.-At a meeting of the Section held on 29th January in the Physics Lecture Theatre of Trinity College, Dublin-Prof. W. E. Adeney presiding-Prof. F. E. Hackett delivered a lecture on “Atomic Structure.” At the conclusion of the lecture two Associates were formally admitted to membership of the Institute and received their certificates.Leeds Area.-A meeting of the Section was held at the Great Northern Hotel, Leeds, on zIst January, Mr. Wm. McD. Mackey being in the chair. A paper was read by Prof. N. M. Comber on “Agricultural Chemistry as a Career.” Dealing first with Agricultural Chemistry as a subject, Prof. Comber directed attention to its great diversity. It embraced the chemistry of soil, plant nutrition, animal nutrition, dairy products and processes, insecticides and fungicides. Our knowledge of some parts of the subject, particularly that of the soil and the plant-which was the crucial part of the subject from the farmer’s viewpoint-was not nearly so great as was popularly supposed.A large amount of the information which chemists conveyed to farmers was based on empiricism, and however useful it might be to the farmer it was far from satisfactory to the chemist. The scope for research work in agricultural chemistry was enormous. After referring to the various types of appointments held by agricultural chemists and to the research stations and insti- tutes in various parts of the country, Prof. Comber dealt with the training of a would-be agIicultura1 chemist. He was strongly of opinion that an honours course in chemistry, with no regard to its ultimate application to agriculture, followed by a course in agricultural chemistry, was the most desirable scheme. During his training in pure chemistry the student should ignore the literature of agricultural chemistry, and forget any intention of applying his chemistry to agriculture.This would prevent the student from studying less profoundly those parts of pure chemistry which he might judge-and probably wrongly judge- to have little importance in agricultural processes. It would also enable him to bring a trained and critical mind to the literature of agricultural chemistry when he first approached it. Most agricultural chemists were brought into more or less frequent contact with the farmer, and it was a regrettable 33 consequence of this that some authorities in appointing agri- cultural chemists appeared to be more concerned about the qualifications of a candidate to talk to farmers than about his potentialities as an agricultural chemist.It was obvious, of course, that an agricultural chemist should have a general knowledge of the industry of farming, but the view that he should have a detailed or practical knowledge of it seemed wholly absurd, for the alleged difficulty of a scientist approaching a farmer is largely a myth, and, moreover, the agricultural chemist is a specialist who, so far as the farmer is concerned, should work in collaboration with the agriculturist. Judging from occasional letters in the press there was con- siderable misunderstanding among farmers about the work of agricultural scientists, and the scientists themselves were largely responsible for it. If these misunderstandings were removed and the importance of fundamental research, and the combination of research with teaching, could be better appreciated, then agricultural chemistry would become in this country, as it has already become in America, a very important field for the chemist.Liverpool and North-Western.-Mr. Alfred Smetham presided at a meeting of the Section held at St. George’s Restaurant on 11th December. The nomination of Mr. H. J. Evans as District Member of Council was announced, and further discussion took place on the proposal to establish a Chemists’ Club in Liverpool. The meeting also considered a resolution from the Manchester Section urging the Council to take steps to obtain government registiation of chemists.After some discussion it was decided to ask the Manchester Section what form of registration was specifically proposed, and to suggest that the Secretary of the Manchester Section should attend a meeting when the matter was next under discussion. Mr. H. J. Evans gave notice of a motion to urge the Council to amend the regulations for the admission of Fellows of the Institute. On 8th January, at a meeting held at the St. Georges Restaurant, four new Associates were welcomed and received their certificates. Prof Roberts, the chairman introduced the resolution from Manchester concerning the registration of chemists. 34 Messrs. Elsdon, Rogers and Wishart attended the meeting by invitation. After discussion, a resolution was passed re-affirming the opinion of the Section that it was desirable to form a National Federation of Men of Science and supporting the suggestion of the Manchester Section that the Council be asked to take the necessary steps to obtain government registration of chemists.London and South-Eastern Counties.-A meeting of the Section was held at the Institute on the zIst January, for the purpose of discussing the report of the Departmental Committee upon the use of preservatives and colouring matters. The Chairman announced that in order to facilitate a frank discussion, no report of the meeting would be made. The following took part in the discussion: Messrs. Beck, Black, Bolton, Colgate, Collett, Hinks, Macara, Osman- Jones, Revis, Richards, Short, Somer and Stubbs.Owing to the celebration of the Registrar’s dual anniversary, the next meeting of the Section will not take place on Monday, and March, as announced, but on Monday, 9th March, in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, when Sir Max Muspratt will address a joint meeting of the Section and the London Section of the Society of Chemical Industry upon “Chemistry and Civilisation.” Malaya.-The Malaya Section was inaugurated at Kuala Lumpur on the 3rd August, and the members, including repre- sentatives from Penang and Singapore, dined together on that occasion. Facilities were thus afforded for the interchange of opinions on many matters of mutual interest to chemists in the Far East. The Annual Meeting of the Section will be held in February at Kuala Lumpur.Manchester and District.-At a meeting held on 14th January, Dr. A. Coulthard was appointed hon. secretary of the local section in place of Mr. R. S.Wishart, who isleaving the district. A very pleasant social evening was spent at the Engineers’ Club on the 19th January. Mr. W. D. Rogers presided in the absence of the Chairman, Mr. S. E. Melling. An excellent programme of music and elocution was contributed by various members of the Section and their friends, including Mrs. I,. Pearson, Miss Whittaker, Miss I. Dale, Messrs. Chorley, Hollins, Mellor, Myres, Philip, and Robinson. 36 On 13th February, a meeting of the Section was held at the Literary and Philosophical Society, Mr.1%’. D. Rogers in the chair. The Chairman, having presented certificates to three new i4~~~~iate~,called upon the Registrar of the Institute to address the Section on ‘‘Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature.” The lecture was illustrated by numerous lantern slides. A cordial vote of thanks was passed to the Registrar on the motion of Mr. G. D. Elsdon, seconded by Mr. D. M. Paul. South Wales.-A meeting of the Section was held at Swansea on zIst November, Prof. J. E. Coates, the Chairman, presiding. Three new Associates received their certificates. A paper entitled “Chemistry at School and After” was read by Mr. E. A. Tyler. Members of the Society of Chemical Industry were also present. At the 6th Annual General Meeting held on 28th November, Dr.Coates and Mr. Anderson were re-elected on the Committee, Messrs. Tyler and Ayling were elected Hon. Auditors. Mr. C. W. Wood was elected Honorary Secretary. The nomination of Mr. C. A. Seyler as District Member of Council for South Wales and Monmouthshire was announced. The meeting was followed by a smoking concert. At a meeting held on 19th December, four new Associates received their certificates. The members adjourned to the Chamber of Commerce to a joint meeting of the Local Sections of the Institute and the Society of Chemical Industry, when a paper on ‘‘Fire Ramp Explosions ” was read by Dr. R. Vernon Wheeler, of the Department of Fuel Technology, University of Sheffield. On 9th January, a dinner was held jointly with the Local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry, Mr.G. H. Clegg, Chairman of the Local Section of the Society, preFiding. Mr. Godsell proposed the toast of “The Institute of Chemistry and Society of Chemical Industry,” to which Mr. Clegg and Prof. Coates responded. Mr. C. A. Seyler proposed the toast of “ Kindred Societies,’J to which Profs. Edwards and Bacon, of University College, Swansea, replied. -4n enjoyable programme of music was provided. Exercises in the Gentle Art of Smoking: A Mixed Grill. BY HENRY E. ARMSTRONG. [An address delivered to the Huddersfield Section of the Institute of Chemistry, 3rd February, 1925.1 “What are the chief characteristics of modern Englishmen ? They are respectability, bigotry and cant.There can be no doubt about this. The consequence is that the men have no character and the women no charm and we rule over a quarter of the world with complete satisfaction to ourselves. These three together make up our modern dragon. . . . . “When all the world has passed through the stage of intelligentscepticism and examined its foundations, it will worship the unknown god without fear and without reproach-a very right and proper thing to do. Meanwhile the pjoneersrnust be damned as dissenters.”* You may wonder at my title. I am no great friend of tobacco, though born and bred in its reek. Still, it is possible to smoke in spirit and, by a natural process, in recent years I have been led within the four walls of Hodeslea, Eastbourne, whose first owner and builder smoked much tobacco, both actual and metaphorical.Well, you know what is said of communications and manners; you cannot sojourn in a prophet’s fumitory without some of the odour coming off on your clothes. Moreover, I began as a student under him and shall never cease from studying him ; perhaps there is some telepathic bond between us; that is a question I must leave to those to consider who seem to be experts in these matters-the classically minded. Who was that prophet ? you will ask. Hodeslea, Eastbourne, is not yet a recognised Mecca. No, nor is it even figured upon *Persezcs EM‘ oj Dragons. H. F. SCOTTSTOKES.(Kegan Paul & Go.) the map, unless it be that of the local tax collector; yet, to Xr.Gladstone and Dean Wace, it was once a name of fearsome import-the abode of a very devil, Thomas Henry Huxley, who was born just a century ago; therefore, he might deservedly be canonised this year. He retired to Eastbourne in 1891 to enjoy a well-earned rest, after engaging in two controversies which, historically and in their effect, are among the most important of our time. In these the story of Genesis and the Biblical narrative generally were subjected to a searching scientific criticism and given a natural interpretation which was the death-blow to our Anglican ecclesiasticism in the minds of thinking men. The withers of Dean Wace were sore wrung in a discussion of agnosticism and, for Mr. Gladstone’s benefit, the Gadarene swine were once again slain-at least the myth was: it was shown to be but a survival of the demonology which had possessed the soul of man from earliest times onwards; indeed, is still and must remain potent within him, Huxley’s shadow has been over me as I have sat in my “smoking ” in the room in which he once wrote, always incisively and fearlessly and ever in the spirit pregnant in a sentence in one of his letters to the clergyman Charles Kingsley : Sit down I‘ before fact as a little child, be prepared to give up eve-y pre- conceived notion, follow humbly wherever and to whatever abysses nature leads or you shall learn nothing.” Surely this is a sentiment worth smoking always in your pipes! I wonder how many of you have-as Disraeli said of the lady who indulged in French novels-“ manured your minds ” by reading Huxley’s Essays and what the demand for these is in your public library? I will not be so cruel as to say: “Hands up, please.’’ No books are better worth reading, if only for their English and their clear, close, logical argument.The essays on Chalk and Yeast are unrivalled exemplars of style- for the chemist especially. When, less than a year ago, I addressed your Institute for the first time, I had no idea that I was to be continued in our next; when the invitation came to me and I was pressed to name a subject, I did not know what to answer. After a time I bethought me of the old saw: “Put that in your pipe and smoke it.” At least it would give me some opportunity for reflexion .. . . . . . 1thought we should be meeting after dinner and that you would then be able to stand being told a few home truths regarding our present-day superstitions. 38 It is as true to-day as when Samuel Butler made the state- ment years ago, that “if people like being deceived-and this can hardly be doubted-there can rarely have been a time during which they can have had more of the wish than now. The literary, scientific and religious worlds vie with one another in trying to gratify the public.” The literary are still trying to foist the ancient classics upon all and are inclined to throw in telepathy; the scientific, weak hydrogen ions ; the religious, faith healing ; even chemical manufacturers sell much sound and fury as soap and sundry other salts.I am not without knowledge of the toxic qualities of smoke, as, together with Mr. E. V. Evans, the chief chemist of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, I recently carried out experiments to determine the amount of carbonic oxide produced by smoking in different ways. We found an average of about 0.5 per cent. in cigarette smoke and 1.5 per cent. in smoke from a pipe, whilst cigar smoke sometimes contained as much as 10per cent. Fortunately cigar and pipe smokers rarely inhale- so such smoking harms them far less than does the vicious cigarette. Is this last perhaps attractive because it is so vicious? What is the explanation of the astounding prevalence of the cigarette habit ? The answer is worth seeking-any answer would be that checked the habit-the most wasteful, if not the most selfish, in which we indulge; what is the explanation of the extraordinary hold the practice has upon so many? Let us begin our smoking to-night with THEPAPALCIGARETTE.I suppose you have all heard of Yadil. You know how whole pages of the leading daily papers were filled with more than bold advertisements of its virtues-there was nothing it did not cure. It was in use in all ranks of society, from the Royal Household downwards, we are told; even pigs were supposed to benefit from its administration. Suddenly, a knight arose in Cambridge and boldly smote it on the hip-in the Daily Mail. He said, in effect, let there be no Yadil! And there was no Yadil! It was deservedly dead within a week, its end being marked by no noise, even so much as comes from every self-respecting stage dragon when killed by a Siegfried. Thus was chemistry triumphant-why ? Because it had logic behind it and courage.The episode is one of the most 39 remarkable of our times. In the first place, we have in it an illustration of the infinite gullibility of our race-the belief in the printed word. Difficult as it is to understand that people could be so taken in by statements such as were made and that the acclaimed leaders of public opinion should have given them circulation, it is still more difficult to understand the suddenness with which so intense a belief was destroyed.The power of advertisement both to make and to mar never stood out in more glaring colours. We may take comfort in such a result ; at least, it points the way. It is proof that the public can be influenced and in the direction of reason. Is it not the office of the chemist to note the example set at Cambridge and continue the good work? The brand smoked in the Papal cigarette is not the only one deserving to be consumed. The uses of adversity may be sweet but those of advertisement are often sour-who can better distinguish the good from the bad than the chemist? Quality comes into account almost always. Gentlemen, the public must learn to look to you for protection. Apparently nothing is sold to-day without advertisement-a sign both that the public has little judgment and that purveyors no longer advise buyers what is good, as they did in my young days.It is the result of substituting large scale dealing for individual enterprise-science goes to the wall in consequence. I can foresee that the intro- duction of team-work, as it is called, may easily have a similar lowering influence upon the quality of the output of scientific inquirers. It is so doing; team workers tend to produce oniy to order. Our work must be to spread the use of scientific method. Surely the man who can discriminate between a good cheese and a bad one deserves to be called a scientist, with whatever stigma my attach to the ist. He knows! He knows! Indeed, the shopman who knows a good cheese is a scientific observer in the eyes of the public and a far greater benefactor to his species than any player of oughts and crosses in the Chemical Society and the whole army of hydrogen-ion worshippers.A large proportion of the goods sold to-day by advertisement, even ions, would not be bought, at all events at the prices now charged, if we knew what they were and their intrinsic value. What is the adage about giving a dog a bad name? To-day, the method is reversed. You call good honest bleach by a fancy name and set damsels to distribute it in public; forthwith its selling price goes up at a logarithmic rate; the mild aperient has long been 40 thus favoured. Perhaps this use of reciprocals of P, values is a result of teaching physical chemistry.We complain of the cost of living but it is largely due to advertisement, direct and indirect; direct, through press and post ;indirect, through shop display. Advertisement is becoming a form of conspiracy to make people buy what they do not want and often were better without. Everything is being done to "boost" the manufacturer, whether of wanted or unwanted goods-all because of an excessive population and the growth- especially in the U.S.A.-of the get-rich-quick spirit. I commend to you an article on the subject in the November number of the AtZantic MonthZy. It is there suggested that the main purpose behind Prohibition is not moral but the desire to prevent the masses from drinking, in order that they may have money with which to buy motor cars and manufactured goods generally.The well-to-do buy them, anyway, so they may be allowed to drink. It is worth noting that the motor car in the States has killed, within three years, as many Americans as were lost in the late war-it therefore has its value in relieving the press of population and is not merely a luxury. This soulless age of ad- vertisement cannot last for ever. Only suicide can be its end. The task of discriminating between good and bad is never easy and sometimes more than difficult. To give an example. At the moment the Papal cigarette is filled with a brand that will need much smoking to bring out its character-Nicotiana antiseptica. This is a weed far more difficult to smoke than the Yadil mixture.How are we to deal with it? The scientific inquirer and worker must be logical to remain scientific. Yet life is a compromise. We have a militant new Ministry seeking to apply half-knowledge. Instead of insisting that the original supply be clean, it is allowing the milk trade to sterilise all milk, believing that certain organisms which may be in it are thereby killed, yet overlooking the fact that apparently the food value is thereby lowered. Now, a committee it appointed has proposed, if not to abolish the use of antiseptics, greatly to restrict their use. Exception is taken to the recommendations of the committee as to the use of sulphurous and boric acids in particular, The arguments advanced in opposition to the official findings are strictly logical and it cannot well be denied that the proposals criticised were based upon sentiment rather than upon science, that is to say, knowledge. The evidence is not merely conflicting so much as it is insufficient. At present 41 we can only argue on the general ground that, in the unicellular organisms we seek to control and kill by the use of antiseptics, the life process is like that in the multitude of cells of which our own bodies are composed-therefore, that substances which will affect such organisms will affect us.It must be so. The question is, to what extent and whether the effect be such as to counterbalance the advantage to be derived from moderated use of the incriminated materials; in other words, whether there be any sufficient power in us of “adjusting” ourselves against such untoward influence from outside.We cannot but admit that the necessary data are lacking. Our cloth has rendered substantial service in thus bringing the issue to public notice. To give my opinion for what it is worth-I am known to have been a worker on the subject and I was in the butter trade in my youth-I would not allow the food of infants and of children to be contaminated with any preservative ; especially would I have milk supplied clean from the cow, without the least modifying treatment; also I would not allow boric acid in butter, as this is so generally and largely used by children. Now that we understand the value of cleanliness and the use of cold storage, it is fully within our power to meet public requirements without any kind of adventitious aid.No one who is a close observer of town children can but be struck by their fanciful appetites and the small margin of safety upon which they live. We are only now beginning to master the problems of food but the further we penetrate the more it is clear, that it should differ as little as possible from its natural state; after all, we began our life in trees and early habit still sticks to us; the whole of animate nature seems to be built of similar materials and modern anti- septics were not in the original bill of fare. Now let me pass to a brand Huxley might have chosen at the moment: BISHOP’SMIXTURE. You have close at hand a naughty Bishop who has ventured to act up to his lights and be logical in favouring organised faith healing. Now what has this to do with us as chemists? I believe the Hodeslea P.C. would have said ‘I Everything !” That he would at once have donned his armour and gone a-tilting against the movement.He fearlessly challenged the clerics to prove their words-in the interests of Truth. Science, chemistry especially, is the search after Truth-not a mere body of know- ledge; ever remember that it is the duty of all who engage in 42 ie quest to destroy error, of whatever kind, by the way. Is is, however, the spirit in which we are working? Faith is at least a form of weakness, if not of error, because involves belief through desire and not upon reasoned, palpable ridence; it is a source of error very much abroad at the present me, the nature of which we need to understand if we are to :ercise it with entire discretion. Telepathy is perhaps the test and most pernicious form of its outbreak.As scientific workers-makers of knowledge-you are :cessarily missionaries also and must be constructive workers the cause of truth. Therefore, you must dispute and destroy ror. The doctrine we hold and must teach is that science is a ethod, not a mere subject-in principle, a flawless method, ough never one of finality. To use words already spoken at iother branch of the Institute: ((We of the cloth of science have make it clear that truth is something absolute-something be worked for, with unremitting toil of observation and periment, to be considered and tested over and over again, )m every possible and impossible point of view and then only ovisionally accepted.” With this message of method in our hands we may fearlessly out and challenge all and sundry who do not practice it. Man, we know, is a poor weak creature, gifted congenitally th the most serious limitations but we no longer believe that he born bad-on the contrary, as Tertullian said long ago-anima turaliter Christiana-man is naturally ChIistian. Dean Inge, I believe, has objected to the practices your .ughty neighbouring Bishop has favoured: “that they helped a most regrettable recrudesence of superstition.” This is etty hard hitting from one cleric to another.The Bishop swers in the following terms (Guardian, 3 December, 1924): ‘‘I would ask in all seriousness, ‘Do you believe in God in such a sense that he did not merely create the world and set it going as a machine but is still living and acting in the world which He made and is a loving Father intimately concerned in and caring for each one of his children? Do you believe in prayer in the sense that the prayer of faith can and does effect things which would otherwise not happen?’ ” He is justified in saying that “if you believe these things youiy be helped by attending our faith healing services.” We 43 know, from experience, that some may be, “because mental state may and often, if not usually, does influence bodily health.’’ This, however, is no proof that the’Bishop’s premise is sound.We know the history of his kind; we know the idiosyncrasies of his class; we know the historical origin of the beliefs upon which they pin their faith; that the statements are man-made and traditional. We need deny nothing but we not only have the right, we are, in truth, bound to ask for the evidence for any and all such prepositions-especially for the assumption that the “order of Nature” can be modified, altered or disturbed by prayer. We certainly derived no such belief, nay, not even the hope, from the late war: we saw that we had to fight things out among ourselves and to practice infinite cruelty. Such seems to have been man’s way from the beginning. The Church and ourselves are in like quandary.Sometime in October last the Archbishop of York urged the need of a militant programme of Christian endeavour. On the same day, elsewhere, the Bishop of Southwark spoke in similar terms. Men were seeking for more truth, he said, which will satisfy the desire of their souls. We certainly are in need of developing a militant programme of scientific endeavour. “The truth of the matter is,” said the Archbishop, “the vast mass of the laity of all classes are to-day quite un-interested in many of the matters which absorb our energies; they are ignorant of the very meaning of our theological vocabulary; it is to them a strange and incomprehensible language.” That is precisely our position. You know, in and out of season, of late years, I have protested against our scientific jargon.We use a language which the public cannot understand; we do not even understand it ourselves. As I write this the postman brings me a chemical essay and my eye is caught by the term poronotropy; what is poronotropic? I can’t find it in the dictionary. Apparently, our modern young chemists cannot use penny-plain but only twopenny-coloured language. The Archbishop of York has told his colleagues of the Church that they should take care to establish the Christian faith as it really is; further, that they must concentrate against the onslaughts of intelligent men, and that unless the message of Christianity gets home to the workers there is no hope for his church. 44 If, as Tertullian has said, man be naturally Christian- Pagan, too, we must admit-what is the message of Christianity? There must be a definition df terms; some understanding of what it is we are called upon to be and do.Presumably the Archbishop means a doctrinal, dogmatic faith, a theology, not simply a moral code; he would not be satisfied with an approved code of ethics and moral behaviour. Most scientific workers to-day probably desire to distinguish religion from theology in any of its forms, of which there are so many. Theism is too distant a prospect to the student of relativity. Dean Inge, who is trying hard to unwrap the sacerdotal knot in which he is tied, has gone far in saying, in his Morniryg Post articles, that “The evidences of religion are no longer external and miraculous; they are those which faith itself supplies.The lessons of anthropology ”-according to the Dean-“ are that religion, science, ethics and Esthetics have all become differ- entiated out of the confused muddle in which they exist together in the mind of the savage”-a diagnosis we can accept as accurate and illuminating. Faith, unfortunately, is scarcely a recognised weapon in the hands of the abstract scientific worker. His position must ever be: Yes. I am prepared to accept such and such a doctrine as conceivable but what is the evidence? I will consider whatever evidence can be produced but I can give it no more than the value of a working hypothesis until proof be forthcoming. What is the proof the Dean offers? Merely the feelings of a certain type of mind. “Religion, far from being a disease,” he says, “is essential to mental health and if we may trust those who, in other fields, would be called experts in their subject, there is one thing of which they feel increasingly certain and that is that in prayer and meditation they are actually in contact with a spiritual reality which is not a projection of their own thought and will? ” This is a definite claim for our submission to an authority which we cannot admit ;it is but a prolongation of the “confused muddle ” of the savage mind.The existence of a spiritual reality which is not a projection of our own thought and will-I may add, “and a mechanism ”-is a postulate of which many of us see no evidence, Nay, more, we would modify Matthew Arnold’s something within ourselves ” to “something truly and wholly ourselves within us.” On this Lucretius may well be read.Of course, “religion is essential to mental health ” but what religion ? Huxley, after saying that no two people agree as to what is meant by the term religion, gives it as his opinion that it ought to mean simply the reverence and love for the ethical ideal and the desire to realise that ideal in life which every man should feel. The same conception was put before chemists at Liverpool by Lord Leverhulme in his masterly address on Science, Religion and the Workshop, which I have already discussed elsewhere (see Education, 7th and 14th November, 1924).In bringing the subject before you, I am acting in the spirit of Lord Leverhulme’s statement : “Professors of Religion and Professors of Science must learn to go arm in arm together through life to raise and elevate mankind higher and higher above the brute beast and nearer and nearer to the angels.’’ I hav’nt yet met with many angels among my acquaintance and am prepared to await their appearance in a Wellsian future- but I should like to see some greater distance placed between the beasts and ourselves. Our conclusion must ever be that average man cannot do without some form of theocracy; we cannot expect the many to be rationalists. Perhaps the majority need some means of relieving themselves of responsibility.On this account probably there will be a great increase of Romanism, though this, too, is being modernised. There will not be much left of the Church as we know it to-day when its professors have learnt to go arm in arm with us. At any moment an attack like that on YadiZ might catch the public fancy-and down might go the entire Church house of cards. It is for the scientific worker to look ahead and be prepared to forward the religion of real knowledge and make it that of the public. Have we a religion even in chemistry? Is not the first call upon us to pluck out the beam from our own eye rather than to call attention to the motes in those of our adversary? The peril is very near to us. Why is the systematic practice of scientific method of so recent a date? It was thousands of years ago, long before Greek culture set in.There is nothing in it to account for the long delay. The explanation is simple. It has been kept under by the Church and may easily again be overcome by the Church and by ignorance. Its practice has been in the hands of a small class of mankind. This class is fast losing its propoitional strength; it suffered horribly in the late war; now we are consciously limiting its increase. 46 Are we religious strivers after an ideal; are we not merely copyists? Scientific method, as a religion, is as much in the background to-day as is ethical Christianity. In practice the majority of so-called scientific workers are but faith worshippers, brought up in the belief in certain doctrines.The true method of science is never displayed in the books, The student asks for dogma and gets it. “What do I pay you for, as a teacher-he says-but to think for me and give me stuff to offer up when I pray to our modern gods at Oxford and Cambridge and elsewhere. They will burn me upon their altars if I don’t give it to them pat-instead of paying me to come into their priesthood, because I show that T am a conformist.” The boy at school is prepared for confirmation by the Bishop and learns the Church Catechism, at the same time that he learns the catechism of physical chemistry and to express his belief in the weak hydrogen ion and a multitude of other superstitions. The Church and science are at one in their preparation of acolytes.Put that in your pipes, please; smoke it for all you are worth! The Bishop of York, at the recent celebration of the Jubilee of the Leeds University, asked for the creation of a faculty of theology. Theology is but a branch of anthropology-it has been man’s way to create gods in his own image from the beginning. True ethics are fundamental to all science and therefore the needs of religion should be met when scientific method is properly taught-but I doubt if, at present, the least effort be made to teach it. The jargon and dogmas of science claim all but entire attention-not its spirit. Certain obscur- antists called examiners ever bar the way with their catechisms. From Bishop’s Mixture let us now pass to the PRIMEMINISTER’SSMOKE.Naturally, our attention is sometimes caught by whiffs from the Prime Minister’s pipe. Not long ago he more or less gibed at “Theory,” as the so-called practical man too often does. Well, the man who acts merely on impulse to-day, without some guiding principle, as an opportunist, has not much chance of helping on the world or even his own particular section. The art of science, the art behind science, is the art of straight thinking and of straight doing. In politics, sentiment and expediency seem to be the guides. True science is selfless; politics, selfishness and the whims of a party majoritj-. 47 While always coining new words, the world scientific to-day is strangely oblivious of the meaning of words.Having once misused a word we continue to do so. One ancient instance is hydrochloric acid, applied to the gas represented by HC1. This is not acid and there is nothing chloric about it. If we chemists had any scientific health in us, we could not continue to use such a term; the continued use of the name means, nor more nor less, simply that we are not thinking when at our job. I can, therefore, without hesitation, take exception to the use of “Theory” by the Prime Minister-we rarely, if ever, ourselves use the term properly. The wildest speculation, every mere explanation, is constantly termed a theory in the text-books. The Prime Minister is in the unfortunate position that there is no theory at his disposal which he can usefully apply; his present need and that of all politicians is appreciation of the method behind our work, though unfortunately more often than not so far behind that it is not very obvious to the outside observer.We need ourselves to set a more consistent example- then perhaps we shall gain a public following. At present, our sensational discoveries are trumpetted abroad but we set no public example of method-yet, in the end, nothing counts but method, method being the scientific synonym of morality: the manners of science. You will probably have noticed that the Prime Minister has been smoking over two noteworthy topics-the reduction of our population by emigration and our agricultural policy, both of paramount importance. He has spoken of filling up the wcste empty spaces in our Empire.These are subjects which scientific workers must consider. There can be no doubt that our country is greatly over-populated and that however we may redistribute ourselves, our raw materials are so near exhaustion and the markets open to us so narrowed that we cannot hope to maintain the manufacturing supremacy we have so long enjoyed-unless we advance in skill in some phenomenal way. Emigration is at most a palliative. Moreover, if we were to fill up the waste places, where would those to come find space? The question is, where and to what extent is waste space to be found? The map is but a poor guide; even if it indicate climate it has no regard for soil. Canada offers no soft jobs; I believe only workers to till the soil are asked for and those who know the conditions.-I have seen something of them myself- 48 tell us that they are very hard and unattractive.Where there is more than six months of winter this must be so. Canada is undoubtedly the country of the future, because of its water power and minerals-but development of these must be gradual and large numbers will not be needed. As to Australia, owing to the peculiar distribution of rainfall, only a relatively small area-that bordering the coast-can be occupied with advantage. The population is concentrated in a few large towns, which are overpopulated, yet the country behind remains undeveloped. Those who undertake its development are likely to have a very hard time; again, I can give an opinion from personal observation.Can we greatly increase the numbers in our Empire? We need a complete scientific survey of Australia, to know exactly what its soil is and its water supply. It is arid over a large area, first because of the absence of rain. Then, much of the artesian water is too alkaline and too full of salt for use; we are even told that if it were freely used the supply would be exhausted after a time, just as that of petroleum inevitably will be, owing to the extravagant use to which it is now put. Having no mountains in the interior, Australia is peculiar in that there are great tracts of sandy soil, which do not yield an economic crop unless artificially fertilised by phosphatic manures in particular. Phosphate, probably, is the ultimate factor limiting popu- lations the world over; the nations must some day fight for their possession.Phosphates, we know, are of highly localised occur- rence and must be paid for. Most of the cultivated land of the world to-day is reduced to bed-rock level, and needs to be artificially fertilised to yield an economic crop. The competition for fertilisers in the future must be serious. This leads me to consider our agricultural policy. During and since the war there has been continued agitation in favour of our growing more wheat. Probably we eat relatively far too much starch and sugar, not enough protein and uncooked green food, not enough whole food. The body of evidence that quality counts far above quantity is everyday increasing and is very great.We need more milk and meat and to improve the quality of our milk supply. The meat we get from abroad is of poor quality compared with that we can produceon our fattingpastures but our pasture land, on the average, is of poor quality. incline to advocate the improvement of pasture by liming and by phosphatic manures. I would take chances of a wheat supply as long as we can get it from elsewhere at a reasonable price. would lay up as great a store of phosphates as possible in our soils -in the end, national expenditure in this direction would, I believe, be justified beyond every other. The potato has yet to be appreciated at its full value-our women have to learn to cook it properly without peeling away its major value and dissolving out much of the rest.There is not the least doubt that the average health of the nation could be raised, raised greatly, if real attention were given to the quality and preparation of our food. Finally, I will ask you to put a PROBONOPUBLICO mixture into your briar roots. My whole argument has been that you have a mission in the world-one extending beyond the laboratory. If you cannot recognise this you are not worth your salt-mere artificers, pawns in the game of life, without suspicion of knavery, let alone of bishop, castle, queen or king. Throughout the ages there has been a Church militant-you will find “Joan of Arc ” full of the topic and a fair warning.We have to proclaim science militant and to meet and conquer the Church and obscurantism-or our civilisation must fall. Science has no right to be only destructive-merely to deprive man of his man-made faith in man-made idols of his own imagination; science must now be constructive. We have to provide the philosophy and religion which the clerics do not and say we cannot provide. Let them say what they say; let us show that we know better. Men like Dean Inge and the Bishop of Birmingham have openly confessed to their ship being upon the rocks-the Dean can only contemplate going on board The Three Vdues-Truth, Beauty and Goodness. Lord Leverhulme has spoken in clearer and more manly terms and directly to chemists, in his Liverpool address.If we truly seek and find truth, if we sit down before fact, in the way recommended by Huxley, the rest will follow. It will be for us to maintain the Emersonian doctrine- “Whoso would be a man must be a non-conformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind.” 50 Our European civilisation, in the eyes of all thinking men, is hurrying to destruction. The average intelligence has been vastly lowered in the late war and not only is no attempt being made to repair the loss but there is a definite movement towards its accentuation. Fifty years hence, if not in far less time, we shall not have a cow worth milking if we treat our herds as we are treating ourselves-this, by the way, is smoke for prime ministers and politicians generally.Unless the nations learn to work together, Europe must go to pieces-the gathering hordes of barbarian Russia stare us in the face and may easily be upon our back. What can we do? We can at least set our own subject in order and in so doing learn to work together. What is the position of chemistry to-day? It is without position-mainly feared by society, not looked up to as a great element of safety-hopelessly ragged, in that it is unorganised, without leadership. There is no statesmenship abroad among us. Local option is favoured where association and co-operation are the crying need-as they are among the nations.Everywhere, poverty of outlook. Self, self, self, alone counts. The trendais the very opposite of what it should be. Speaking in this deeply dyed town of Huddersfield, let me take, in illustration, the dyestuff industry, which we have so long failed to make a British industry, though it had its origin in the foundation laid by Faraday just a century ago in the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, London. Why are we failing? Huddersfield has nobly proved that it might well do what is necessary; Grangemouth has still more signally shown that what Germany alone was able to do yesterday, Scotland to-day can do even better. I say signally shown because success is due to a single individual, not to a great state-aided corporation.Then Manchester also wears the anthracene laurel. Through the kindness of Mr. Morton, I have here specimens of the latest achievement of the scientific workers in his firm- the one set, new to commerce, of SOZedon Purple, R.R., is shown for the first time. To me, who have been concerned all my life with the industry, myself the author of the only "theory " thus far proposed of the relation between colour and constitution-an interpretation thirty-six years old in March next-these specimens represent an extraordinary advance, destined, if I be not mistaken, to have a revolutionary effect on the dyestuff and dyeing industries. For the first time we have vat dyestuffs, 51 pigments which are of extraordinary permanence in light, applied to silk and wool-not merely to cotton.More interesting to me, however, is the marvellous difference in colour between two such specimens as I here show of Jade Green, on Viscose silk, in its undeveloped and developed forms, corresponding to indigo-white and indigo -the one a brilliant salmon-pink with a most perfect yellow fluorescent sheen, the other a beautiful green. You may well smoke my exhibit in your pipes, dyemakers and dyers all: reflecting also what viscose silk represents, you may go home very proud of your profession! The failure I am lamenting comes because the spirit prevails which prevails so bitterly among the eastern nations-the spirit of narrow non-conformity, jealousy and self. There has been entire lack of co-operative imagination, of outlook and of feeling-no common understanding of the vast range of entrancing problems and opportunities the industry presents and the treat- ment it consequently needs.Then a most serious factor is the lack of sympathy between user and producer; had the users played the game throughout, the difficulties of the producer would have been more than half met. No set of mere business men, nor men of affairs, can hope to direct such an industry-the management must be gifted with technical and artistic feeling to succeed. How can men who do not even know Quinone from Quinol hope to guide the fortunes of the artistic combine that alone can build up the complex palette of the dyestuff factory and user. If the statesman cannot be found who will put an end to the present chaos and co-ordinate activities of proved avail, not only will the industry fail through internal weakness and fall before the competition of others; what is worse, no example will be set.Other industries are in like peril. The iron and steel trade seem to have fallen into a state of complete inanition. What is needed for one is needed for all; what happens to one in the end will happen to a11 if we cannot bring imagination to bear and work in common. The condition of chemistry is worse than that of dyestuffs, because there are more competing firms in it. Kleinstadigkeit, Little-endism, is its bane. L’Union fait la Force is a well-known French motto. Roll up! must be the chemists’ cry.The Institute of Chemistry has played its part-it and all the other organisations chemical must now be united into one body, Tht. Institittcs of Chemistry. Chemists will be a disgrace to their cloth until they have accomplished this end, which must be soon 52 or it will never be. If they be not a fully-organised, coherent, body within five years, heaven help them; they will rightly be written off by the community as people of no social consequence. I was present at the conception of your Institute and fought against it-as a separate body. My contention always was that the Chemical Society should exercise what necessary authority the Institute was projected to exercise. I was defeated by Odling-a man of greater obstinacy, gifted with a halo of authority when I was but a youth.The Institute has done real service by raising the standard of acquirement for consulting chemists. It long did harm to regular students by requiring them to pass its examinations; this has been remedied by the direct admission of those who have had systematic training of university rank. Xow that education is provided everywhere, the collcge diploma is a sufficient qualification. The Institute may well retire gracefully and take on deliberative, parliamentary functions, in association with all with whom it may associate with respect. The subject is too big, however, for present discussion. I am but telling you what is expected of you by the world outside science-what is in your power to do.No greater blasphemy was ever uttered than the Bishop of Chelmsford’s recent statement: “That the great mass of the people of this land have either considered and found no use for religion or have accepted at the hands of others the notion that it is useless.” He has used religion where he should have said Church practice. At no time was the desire fur truth peater. Incalculable efforts are being made, by a noble army of scientific workers, to found n religion of truth ; unfortunately they are not sufficiently alivc to the need of openly preaching the message they could deliver and many philistines are abroad. Now is the opportunity and call for you to act-by making yourselves a compact and a living force. 53 Notes. Beit Fellowships for Scientific Research. -The Trustees for the Beit Fellowships have notified that the next elections will be made on or about the 15th July next.The annual value of each Fellowship is L250 to be held for one year, which may be extended by the Trustees for a further period not exceeding one year. Fellowships are open to persons under the age of twenty-five years on the date of the election who have taken a degree in any Faculty in any University in the British Empire approved by the Trustees, or have passed the examinations which would have entitled them to take such degrees or are in possession of any Diploma or Associateship of any College approved by the Trustees; but the holder of any other Scholarship or Fellowship is disqualified.Fill1 particulars and form of application can be obtained from the Secretary, Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, London, S.W.7. Heat Engine Trials.-The Institution of Civil Engineers has given preliminary notice of a joint meeting to be held at the Institution on the 25th March at 6 p.m., when the Heat Engine Trials Committee will present for discussion the standard form or code for tabulating the results of a steam generating plant trial. Fellows and Associates of the Institute who are interested in the subject are invited to attend. The subjects which are to be debated will include questions relating to the make-up of the heat account table, and to certain proposals in connection with recording the analysis of oil fuels.Copies of the introductory notes of Mr. W. A. Patchell, who will open the discussion, and of the code itself, will shortly be available for those who desire copies. Enquiries on the subject may be addressed to the Secretary, Institution of Civil. Engineers, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W.I. 54 British Engineering Standards.-Reference is made in the Report of Council to the services of Fellows who have represented the Institute on Sub-committees of the British Engineering Standards Association. Prof. Desch has reported that the Association has published a British Standard Specifi- cation for Portland B!ast Furnace Cement, and Dr. .James Watson has reported that specifications for Sand Lime Bricks and Slag Cement have been published, also that the Cemcnt Specification is to come under revision.G lasgow University Alchemists’ CI ub,-The Alchemists’ Club of Glasgow University entertained members of the Institute, the Andersonian Chemical Society, and the Society of Chemical Industry, on iIth February in the chemical lecture theatre, when the Registrar of the Institute gave a lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature,” illustrated by nearly 200 lantern slides. Mr. Andrew Kent, President of the Alchemists’ Club, presided. A vote of thanks was accorded the Registrar on the motion of Prof. T. S. Patterson. 55 January Examinations, 1925. Summary of the Report of the Board of Examiners. Examinations in General Chemistry for the Associateship were held at the Institute from 5th to 10th- January.Twenty candidates were examined, of whom 8 satisfied the Examiners ; 3 of the successful candidates completed their examination in the translation of foreign technical literature, and 3 of the unsuccessful candidates were referred only in that part of the Examination. PASS LIST. Ball, Francis Edward, B.Sc. (Lond.), Derby Technical College (Joseph Yates, Esq., M.Sc., F.I.C.).Ruxton, John Dawson, B.A. (Cantab.), The University, Cambridge, and King’s College, London. Couzens, Leslie John, West Ham Municipal College arid Sir John Cesa Technical Institute. Foster, John, B.Sc. (Lond.), School of Mines, Treforost (S. RoyIllinp-orth, Esq., DSc., F.I.C.).Nurphy, Edward Arthur, BSc.(Loncl.), Birmingham Municipal Tech. SchooI. Trobridge, Geoffrey William, B.Sc. (Binn.), The University,Birmingham. Walker, William James, Heriot- Watt College, Edinburgh. Wilson, William, Paisley Technical College. Gevteral C:henzistry.-In theoretical inorganic chemistry the first paper was much better done than the second, the quality of the answers being above the average. The principal weakness in the second paper was shown in answers relating to analysis and history. It is fairly obvious that the historical development of chemical ideas has not been sufficiently emphasised in the lectures taken by the candidates. The questions in physical chemistry, which were of a straightforward nature, were well answered. The answers to the theoretical organic paper were in some cases excellent, although the question on the constitution of the cyanides and isocyanides elicited surprisingly little infor- mation, and that on the proof of constitution an amazing number of misconceptions.56 The practical organic work was fairly well done. In the practical inorganic work the results were not satisfactory. In the simplest determination, that of the iron, only four candidates adopted the obvious method of direct reduction and titration. The majority made a si9zgle precipi-tation with alkali, and weighed the iron oxide, in some cases without reprecipitation by ammonia to 1-emovc alkali. The figures ranged between 2.15 per cent. and 0.54 per cent. The aluminium determinations were worse, the results ranging from 7.07 per cent. to 0.24 per cent.It would appear that nearly all the candidates were making this separation for the first time. 111the case of Solution 14 (qualitativc) only four candidates rcxognisecl. that the presence of iron and chloride in a solution which was alkaline with ammonia required investigation. In addition to the above, one candidate, specially examined orally in General Chemistry, did not satisfy the Board; and one candidate, examined in General Chemistry and in the Chemistry of Food and Drugs, inclurling therapeutics, pharmacology and microscopy, did not -;atisfy the Board with respect to his knowledge of thc Sale of I~ooclland Drugs Acts and with thc other Acts and Regulations relating to food, drugs, poisons, dangerous trades, etc., or his ability to fraine reports in accordance therewith.'J'he following papers aid exercises were given in the Examination for the Associateship in General Chemistry. LWONDBY, JANUARY 5th, 1925: 10 u.?I~.to 1 p.?)~. 1. Describe the experiments and reasoning by means cf which the 2. What reactions are involved in the manufacture of phosphorus ? composition 0, was aspigned to ozone. State the probable impurities in the commercial article. Mention the chief compouncls in the commercial preparation of which phosphorus is required as raw material. 3. Give an account of tho occurreiicc, uses arid principal compounds 4. Give an account of the physical aiicl uheiiiical principles under- of eitlw (u)uranium or (b) titanium.lying either (a) t'he contact process for the preparation of SO,; 01' (6) the Haber process for the preparation of ammonia; or (c) the manufacture of water gas. 6. Give the method of preparation, properties and most characteristic reactions of three of the following :-Aluminium carbide, calcium cyanamide, carborundum, metaphosphoric acid, lead tetrachloride. 2p.w. to 5p.w. 1. What are the principal sources of error in volumetric and gravi- metric analysis ? Illustrate your answer with reference to the various methods available for the determination of copper. 2. Draw up a scheme of analysis for a gas containing nitrogen (over 80 per cent.), oxygen, chlorine, hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide.Distinguish between the two cases (a) The analysis may be made on the spot. (b) It is necessary to take a small sample ancl carry orit the analysis at another place. How would you collect the sample in the latter case ? 3. Give an awoiliit of the influence of Hoyle and Stahl on the development of chemistry. 4. State tbe experimental facts undcrlying thc theory of electrolyticdissociation as enunciated by Arrhenius. Show7 how far these facts are correlated by this theory, and discnss any objectioris that have been put forward against it. 5. Write a short essay on eithe? (a) Prout’s hypothesis and recent work on isotopes. or (b) The life history of a radio-active element. l’UESDAY, JANUARY Gth, 1925: 10 a.m.to 1 p.m. 1. Describe the methods cmployed eithe, (a)to convert a higher to a lower monosaceharose ancl vice uersu, or (b) to determine the relative amounts of cmol and ketone in an equilibrium mixture of tautomerides. 2. The following formula, CH, OH.CH :CH.CH : NC,€15was suggested for a, compound. How would you establish it? 3. Discuss the constitution of the cyanides and isocyanides. 4. How are the following reazents prepared and what are their chief uses in organic chemistry :-(u) sernicarbazide hydrochloride ; (b) chromyl chloride; (c) diazomethame; (d) p-bromo-phenylhydrazine;(e) ozone? ti. Either (u)Describe how anthraquinone is prepared commercially and how it ancl its derivatives may be synthesised.Mention two classes of anthraquinone dyestuffs. Or (b) Give a, short account of the methods used for the orientation of benzene compounds. 2p.m. to 3.30p.m. The candidates were required to translate into English passages of about 300 words from the Berichte and from Chimie et Industrie. WEDNEASDAY, JANUARY 7th, 1925 : 10 am. to 4.30p.m. Solution A contains a, mixture of potassium alum, ammonium alum and ferric alum. Determine the ammonia, the iron, and the aluminium in 100 grams of the solution. (A direct separation of the aluminium is preferred. ) (This exercise may bs completed to-morrow.) 58 THURSDAY, JANUARY Sth, 1926: 10 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 1. Complote yesterday’s exercise. 2. Report on the nature of sample B.(Ferric rhloride and ammonia with sufficient sodium pyrcphosphate to keep the solution clear.) FRIDAY, JANUARY Sth, 1925: 10a.m. to 4.30p.m. From the sample of p-toluidine (C) supplied prepare pure crystallised specimens of aceto-p-toluidine, p-cresol, benzal-p-toluidine, and p-toluene- azo-0-naphthol. Record carefully your yields and the appearance and physical properties of your preparations. (This exercise may be completed to-m,orrow.) XATURDAY, JAN rJAR Y‘ loth, 1926 : 10 a.m. to 4.30p.m. 1. Complete yesterday’s exercise. 2. Prepare characteristic specimens for microscopic identification of the osazones of glucose, maltose and lact,ose. Show your slides as prepared to the examiner. 59 Books and their Contents.The following books have been presented by the authors or publishers, and may be seen in the Library of the Institute. “Bituminous Substances.” Scientific Progress of Practical Importance during the last fifteen years. P. E. Spiclrnann. Pp. xv. +206. (London: Ernest Renn, Ltd.) 15s. Historical; composition and origin; properties; effect of heat, agcxiiig,and solvents; physical and chemical tests; nomrnclutiirc; stantlnrtl methods of testing; 1)ihliography. “Calcareous Cements’,’’ their Nature, Manufacture and Uses.” G. R. Redgrave and C. Spackman. 3rd edition. Pp. XV. $395. (London: Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd.) 25~. “Chemical Age” Year Book, Diary and Directory, 1925. (London: Benn Bros., Ltd.) 10s. 6d. “Glass Technology, A Text-Book.” F.W. Hodkin and A. Cousen. Pp. xxiii. +551. (London: Constable CCI Co., Ltd.) fJ22s. Physical and optical properties of glass ; its durability; raw materials; furnaces ; the manipulation of glass; production of hollow ware. “The Platinum Metals.” I<. A. Smith. Py. sii.+12:j. (T,ondon: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1,td.) -3s. Historical; occurrence ; distribution ; so~rces of supply ; work~’s production; mining; metallurgical treatment ; physical and chernicsl properties; industrial iises : platininn industry. “Synthetic Organic Compounds.” S. 1’. Scliotz. t’p. 412. (London: Ernest Benn, JAcl.) 45s. Synthetic solvonts ; chlorinated hyclrocarbons ; other syrilhetic. solt eilts ; synthetir aromatic compounds ; antiseptics aritl disinfectants ; sweetening agents ; jntcrmetlistcs for the manufactuw of dyos; syn-thetic tannins ; explosives ; artificial silk; chemical warfare; plastic masses ; celluloid and synthetic twins. 60 The Institute of Chemistry Students’ Association (London).On 16th January a party of members of the Association visited Messrs. Bryant and May’s works at Vauxhall. On 20th January Dr. T. Slater Price, Director of Research of the British Photographic Association, addressed the members on “The Action of Light on the Photographic Plate,” dealing with modern theories and their development and giving a brief outline of the trend of recent research. Members were subsequently invited to ask questions to which Ur. Slater Price replied, and the meeting concluded with a hearty vote of thanks to the lecturer, proposed by Prof.Smithells, President, seconded by Mr. Marlow. 0bituary. ~COSSXT KUWAKL) ALLSONdied at Croytluri on 24th Septerh~r, I)cingupwards of 80 years of age. Hc commenced his training in chemistryunder Ah-. F. Field at St. RIary’s Hospital, whom he assisted for several years prior to 1862, when he htcerric Assistant at St. Thornas’s Hospital.In the followiiig year, he went to thc. College of Chemistry ttntl acted for a time as Assistant to Hofmann; jii 1864, he becarnc it Junior Assistant in the Chemical Department of the Royal Arsenal, JVoolwrch, which appointment hc rvsigned, in 1867, to join the chemical staff of Messrs. Simpson, Maule & Nicholson, Aniline Dye Manufacturers.In 1872, he was obliged to relinquish work on account of ill-health; hiit after travelling abroad itntil 1875, he became engagtbtl with Mcssrs. \ViIliams, Thomas R-Domeer., until 1879. Eventually he c.stithlished a 1)rivatc consulting practicc in Kwl Lion Squurc, Lonclori, which he continued until shortly before his tleiith. He was elected a Fellow of th: Institute iii 1880. 1’:RKEST ~NTZ dial rccontly, in Manclicstc~r,in his 63rd your. Xducated at Manchester Grammar School, he studied chemistfry at tho Mechanics’ Institute (now-the College of Technology) ancl at Owens College. In 1882, he was appointed chemist to Messrs. J. A. Wilson & Co., calico printers, of Htmdforth, Cheshire, with whom he remained until 61 18‘37.1)uriiig lXHti lS!W, while btill cwgagecl ;it th(t i)rintuurlis, lic 1w11[ the appointment of Lecturer in 1)ping and Culico Printing and thcb Chenristry of Coal rr’;Lr Dyestiifis at tho Mitti<!ht+ytcr ‘I’t~chrlict~l School. Later he dso t:night, at Owens c‘ollcgcr, atict t~1the Hoyril Technical Institute, Salford. From 1897-1911 he was ongaged as chemist at the Printworks of Edmiind Potter 85 Co. Ltd., and since 1911, as chief chemist to the English Sewing Cotton Co. Ltd. He was elected A Fellow of thc. Institute in 1917, WIT,T,IAMGREAVE$,who died at Leedv in lkccmber, was for many years associatecl with the Powell Jluffryn Strani Coal Co. arid the Otto Cokc Oven Co., specialising as a chemical engineer on I)y-product plairt.At the time of his death, he was manager of the new by-product and coke oven plant of Messrs. Guest, Keen and Ncttlefold, at the Ilowla,is Jron and Steel Works. He pa.ssed the Examinat#ion for the Associateship irr 1890 and wa,s elected to the Fellowship in 1894. CECILNAPIERHAKEdied at Monte Carlo in his 77th year. Eclucaterl at King’s College, London, and under Hofrnann at the Royal College of Chemistry, he worked for A time in the laboratory of Dr. A. DuprP, atlid, in 1866 became chemist to Messrs. Leister and Townsond of Stassfurt, of which Dr. DuprP’s brother was manager. Hc remaiiiecl there for. ten years and then became manager of the Stassfnrt Chcmicnl Contptiny’sWorks, which he left in 1884, when he was iippoiiitecl nianager. of the Douglas Salt Mine ant1 Chemical IYorks iii LVest ereglen, n~arStas~fii~l. one of the largest works of its kintl.A few years later, lit. wfJiirrifvi to England antl I)ractised iit Wertniinster. tint il lh91, whcn li~I)roccwlctl 1 o Australia, to a11 appointment in the L)epartrnent of l’ratlc ant1 Chistouks, at Melbourne. Later he was Chief Inspector of Explosives lo the Commonwealth Government, and, finally, Chemical Xdvisrr 1o the Department of Defence, until his retirement in 1911. He was clectetl a Fellow of the Institute in 1880. LTVWNGGEORGEDOWNING died at Carnbridgi, on 26th I)eceinbcr, at t8he age of 97 years. Educated at St. John’s Collcge, Cambridge, tic read for the Matheinatical Tripos arid was elevcrith Wrangler in 1850.In the following year hc w:t~ first, with distinction iii chemistry ttntl mineralogy, of six candidates who then cnteretl for tht. ncwly establishc.tl Natural Scienct~sTripos. He worked for. a short pvriod uritler Rn~nin~lr-t~1m-g in Berlin, and, in 1853, was t~lct~ttd Pelloiv aiitl Lcctiirer. at St. John’s College. Tn 1860, he WM‘~appoiiitetl professor of chcinistry in the Royal Militmy College at, Sandhurst , .though he c.oritiriiir~I to tcticli at Cambridge, and in the following yc’ar xiitwwltvl to thc Chair 111 Chemistry, previously heltl by the 1it.v. pJitmt,s Cuinniing sinw 1815. Prof. Liveing hcld the Chair initil 1908, aiitl was thiis largcly rt~~pii~i~)l~ for building up t8he gi~>at,school of cheirii at Cainhritlgc.He was appointed President of St. John’s College in 191 1. Hc \\Tiis c.lecte(I ii Fellow of the Royal Society in 1879 and received thc 1)avy Medal in 1901 for his work, covering more than fifty papers, on spectroscopy. inainlyconducted jointly with Prof.-later Sir--James J)PwilI*. aHe WNS ~lr~ctctl Fellow of the Tnstitntfl in 147s. 62 The Register. At the meetings of Council held on 19th December, 1924, and on a3rd and 30th January, 1925, 5 new Fellows were elected, 13 Associates were elected to the Fellowship, 64 new Associates were elected, and 41 Students were admitted. The Institute has lost 4 Fellows, and I Student by death, New Fellows. Hennett, Hugh Garner, M.Rc. (Leeds), Westwootl Lodge, Victoria Park Wavertree, Liverpool.Croghan, Edward Henry, M.A. (Cantab.), P.0. Box 2071, Cape Town, South Africa. Faickney, Andrew Pollock, P.O. Box 441, c/o British Burmah Petroleum Co., Rangoon.Merry, John Bentley, 74, Park Hill Road, Karborne, Birmingham. Wraight, Ernest Alfred, A.R.S.M., Metallurgical Department, Indian Stores Department, JR8mshedpur, via Tatanagar, B.N.R., India. Associates elected to the Fellowship. Baker, Arthur, Davenport Lodge, Pelham Road, Gravesend. Barrs, Charles Edward, 58, South Hill Park, Hampstead, London, N.M'. Kowden, Richard Charles, Ph .D. (Bris.), Ravenswootl, Old Park Avenue, Enfield. Crosse, Frederick George, 8, Ederline Avenue, Norbury, S.W. Gale, Prof. Robert Cecil, A.C.G.I., Chemistry Branch, Ordnance College, Red Barracks, Woolwieh, London, S.E.18.Hand, Percy George Terry, 2nd Floor Flat, 57, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood London, S.E.19, Krishna, Sri, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Lond.), 21, Cromw-ell Road, London, S.W.7. Morgan, John Richard, B.Sc. (Wales), 12, London Road, Maldon, Essex. Potter, Alfred, 40, Kimberley Drive, Great Crosby, Liverpool. Taylor, Harry Alan, Imports and Exports Ofice, Hong Kong. W'hitaker, John Wilfrid, B.Sc. (Lond.), University College, Nottingharn. Wilkinson, John Frederick, M.Sc., Ph.D. (Mane.), Rrantwood, Dialstone Lane, Stockport. Wright, Allister Maclean, P.O. Box 617, Christchiirch, New Zealand. 63 New Associate. Elected ryth October, 1924, and omitted from Part VI. of the Journal. Ridlock, Frederick Ckd, l3.S~.(Lond.), Wingfield, ICvington Lalie, IAcestm. New Associates (by Examination). Huxton. John Dawson, U.A. (Cantab.), Brooklands, Kishopawoorl Avenue, Highgate, London, N.6. Couzens, Leslie John, 1, Dover Road, Wanstead Park, London, E.12-Foster, John, B.Sc. (Lond.), 43,Conway Road, Treorchy, Rhondda, Glam. Murphy, Edward Arthur, B.Sc. (Lond.), Ihlyn, Green Lanes, Chester Road, Birmingham. Trobrjdge, Geoffrey William, B.Sc. (Birm.). Barton, Kineton Koatl, Olton, nr. Birmingham.Walker, IYilliam James, c/o Barnes, Gillespie Plnce, F2lintni t.ch. TVilson, William, J,ilyvde, Bishopton, By (ilusgom. New Assooiates. ittlirins, TCrnest Hiyii, ’L1.Sc. (tiii~n.),33, (‘lcvc~lantlRoad, Chimpsall,Manchester. Anderson, James, l3.S~.((Alas.),“ Clhnmwootl,” (’ittherine Street, Mother-well.Anderson, William Richardson, M.Sc. (Dun.), 3, Derwentwatnr Terrace, South Shields. Anfilogoff, Nicholas Lionel, B.Sc. (Lond.), Laihol House, Thanies Haven, Essex. Baird, William, B.Sc. (Glas.), A.R.T.C., 56, Northfield Avenue, Ayr. Beesley, Edward, B.Sc. (Lord.), 13, Shirley Road, London, W.4. 13ennett, Miss Hilda, B.Sc. (Lond .), 123, Addison I~OIIS~,(hvc: Eritl Road, London, N.TV.8. Bennion, Edmund Baron, M.Sc.Tet.h. (j‘ict.). A.M.C.T., 2 1, Hat,tledeaii Road, Highbury, London, N.5. Hhttrgava, Mahesh Prasad, M.Sc. (Allahil hutl), Forest, Rescurch 1ti\t itiite, Dehra Dun, Tnclia. Klttkey, William, B.A. (Cantah.), 13eec+hfield, Murpeth, Korthuniberland. Bmwne, Rowland .Jay, R.Sc. (8011th Africa), R.Sr.(Own), tJniversityCollege, Oxford. (:liiike, Sydney George, H.Sc. (imid.), 38, 1)nrlston Roarl, Kirigqton-oil-Thames . Clarkson, Amos, K.Sc. (Lond.), Rli, Villas l<olttl, Plunisteatl, Lont loti, S.E.18. Clcland, Andrew, 13.S~.(Glas.), Westgate, lkwvel, Ayrshirr. Cluer, Alan Rowland, B.Se. (Lond.), A.R.C.X., 36, Dunmore Rottd, Wimbledon, London, S.TV.20. Crone, William Murray, R.Sc. (Glas.), 14, Wilton Mansions, Glasgow. N.TV. Davies, George Parker, B.Sc. (Lond.), M.Sc. (Wales), 16, Montpelier Terrace, Swansea. Dugan, Miss Dorothy Jane Elizabeth, 13.Sc. (Aberd.), 63, Argyll Place, Aberdeen. Dutt, Sikhil)hushaii, M.R., RI.Sc.. ((’al~~tt:~), ERI‘IR court, Lolldoll, s.\v.5. (i0, Xtwwii S~~WWP. F’yotiiw, Henry Keli, €3.8~.(Loiitl.), ( :i-r>atD~aii,Nr.Chrihtchitrdi, Hants. Gallimnre, Eric Jttriws, 13.S~. (J~~iicl.),Harclwivk lhit(l, Shcmvood, Not tinghani. Goodger, Arthur HttwIcl, lZ.Sc.‘L’cc~li. (Maw.), 30, Liti~;irtl Itoad, Northenden, Cheshire. Griffiths, John Preecly, B.Sc*. (Lontl.), A.K.C.S., 15, Hazrlwootl Lane, Palmer’s Green, Loncloii, N. 13. Harrold, Wilfred George, R.Sc. (Lond.), P.O. Box 1S, Kobe, Japan.Hindley, William Norman, R.Sc. (Lond.),20, Norwootl Crescent, Southport Hollis, Douglas Thornas Robei*t8,€3.8~.(Birni.), 101, Easemore Road, Redditch, liores. John, Miss Ann, B.Rc. (Ti‘ales), Xpuclcler‘s Hriclge, ‘I’riiisarati, Iiitlwclly,S. Wales. Lee, Herman, H.Sc. (I,oncl.), 3, Oakmead ICoa(I, J3ctlhan1, Loii(loii, S.W.12. Lewis, Evan Joseph, IS.Sc.(Wales), Morolwg, Aberayron, Cardiganshire. Lohn, Clarence Edward, 79, Clove Road, Forest Gate, London, E.7. Macdonald, Ian Ewart, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.S., D.I.C., 66, Southwoocl Lane, Highgate, London, N.A. Macleod, George Torquil, B.Sc. (Clas.),21, Huiitly Gardens, Glnsgow, W.2. Jlaguire, Owen, R.Sc. (Glns.), “Ralgair,” Stewartoil Drive, Camhuslang,Glasgow. lllarson, Cecil Brittain, I3.Sc. (Leccls), Fuel and Met:illurgicnl Department The University, Lceds. Mathews, Norman Leslie, B.Sc. (Vict.), 201, Dotlglits Roa(1. ACwk’s (‘:reen,Birminghctm.Northcott, Leslie Faithful C‘yril, H.Sc., M.Sc.Met. (Himi.), “The 1)cn,” Halesoweii. Park, James Ritchie, M.Se. (Lond.), 8, Marlborough Crovc, Fulfortl ICoatl, York.Paterson, Thomas Ramsay, Ph.D. (14din.), 227, llalkeith Road, Edinburgh.Penney, Alfred Charles, B.Sc. (Lond.), “The Rosary,” Galleywood, Chelms- ford, Essex. Perkin, Emil Ralph, 18, Koh-i-noor Avenue, Bushty, Hert~s. Priestley, Leonard Powell, B.Sc. (Lonci.), 6, Hill Street, Wibsey, Bradford. Reed, John Brent, B.Sc. (Lond.), 49, St. Milclred’s Road, Lee, Lonclnir, S.E.12. Rice, Frederick, B.Sc. (Lord.), 53, Willenhall Road, Bilston, Staft’s. Russell, Miss Aiinie Rohrts, 15.8~.((jlt~s.), ;\f-nriicipal Tcchiiical Rc*hiiol, &iff ok Street, Bi rinin gha I 11. Sharples, Edwiii Holroycl, M.S:c*.‘l‘rv*h.(Ala~ic.),12, Oitk Harik ,4vwiutJ, Mostot 1, Mttnchester. Sloan, George, 13.Sc. (Ulas.), 104, Victoria Drive, Scotstuunliill, Glesgow.Tatner, Gilbert H~ni~y,€Z.Sv. (Lontl.), Iduperinwntd Statioii, Porton, Wilts. Tebbit, Reginald &hwt,A.O.G.F.C., 120, llordship Lari(A, Loiiduii, S.E.22. Tosh, Nornian 1)ouglas l?e~1ton, 1LSc. (( ;1as. ),A. R.T.(‘.,Nonr-oc,tl, Bishop-ton, Re11frewshire. Twist, Richard Francici, 13.S~.(I,ori(l.), 1, C:i*o\c. 1’tii.k’ l)c.nmtwk Hin, London, S.E.5. Walley, William Stanley, M.8c. (_\'lent.), lIysart> House, Nantwich. Weaver, Stanley Douglas, H.Sc. (Lontl.), A.R.C.S., D.I.C., 27, HAstingsRoad, Maidstone, Kent,. Webber, Harold Frank Philip, B.Sc. (Lond.), Willow Walk, Chertsey,Surrey.Westmood, Willimn, R.Sc. (( ;Ifis.), Ashlea, (:lydevieiv, ]’art ick, Glasgow. 65 Wilkes, Sydney Herbert,, M.C., M.A., R.8c. (Oxon), 12. Rraemar Avuriuc, Wood Green, London, N.22.Woosley, Duncan Pax, B.Sc. (Lond.), ‘36, Itoxburgh Roatl, Harrow, MiddIesex. Wylie, John, B.Sc. (Glas.), 23, Rinnic Street', GOW(JC~,Scotland. New Students. Baker, Ernest James, B.8c. (Lord.), 83, Edenbriclge ICoatl, Bush Hill Park, Enfield. Barlow, Miss Mary Lysbeth, Ellerton, Portsmouth Road, Thames Ditton, Surrey.Bishop, Laurence Walter Edwin, 50, Englands Lane. Harnpstead, London, N.W.3. Rloomfield, William John, 17, King Henry’s Walk, London, N.l. Bowles, Reginald Frederick, 8, Lamboarn Road, Clapham, London, S.kV.4. Buchanan, James Fairfull, 12, St. Michael‘s Koad, Aigburt, Livcv-pool. Burton, John Headlarid, 26, Bell Street, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. Cohen, Jacob David, 49, Gowers Walk, Commercial Itoatl, London, E.1 .Compton, Miss Margaret Kathleen, 22, Inglis Road, Colchester. Cooper, Bernard Frank, c/o Attock Oil Co., Ltd., Rawal Pindi, Jntlia. Corner, Miss Mary, 24, The Pavement, Clapham. London, S.TV.4. Cove, Miss Kathleen Victoria, 116, Qiieeri’s Road, Wimbledon, Loiidoii, S.W. Croxford, John William, 73, Brighton Road, East Ham, London, K.6. Currie, Henry Thomas, 39, Victoria Road, Larne, Co. Antrim. Edwards, John Henry, 27a, Hsgley Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. Fidler, Sidney Lmpoltl, 41, Winsham Grove, London, S.W.11. Gough, Bertram Arthur, Lansdowne Villa, Quemcrford, Cahie, Wilts. Harris, Thomas Lane, 14, Hawthorne Road, King’s Norton, Birmingham. Hey, Donald Holroyde, B.Xc. (Lond.), 14, Grosvenor Road, Sketty, Stvansea, Glam.Holden, Crosbie Hugh Messenger, 25, Cadhury Road, Moseley,Birmingham.Israel, Robert Gordon, c/o Chemisches lnstitut der Uni versitat , Hessische Strasse 1, Berlin, N.4, Germany. Kelly, Arthur Reginald, 8, Stainforth Jioarl, I2’c~wbur.yPark, Ilfortl, &sex. Leet, Ronald C:rogan, 35, Yurk Grox P, Pccltharn, Lonclon, R.11;. 15. Lyle, William Claude, 308, Durnharton Koaci, Glasgow. Macrae, John Campbell, 39, Thornwood Drive, Partick U’est. Ulaegow.McConnell, Francis John, 13.31. Building Research Station, Long Drive, E. Acton, London, TV.3. McIntyre, George Telford, GO, Ratcliffe Terrace, 14dinburgh.Offord, Frederick William, 66, Watfnrcl lLo:ttl, Canning Town, I1on(lon, €3.16 Ogilvie, William Mackay, 19, Hillview Twrace, Klackhall, &Tirllothian.Page, Ronald, The Cottage, Loughborough ICoatl, Ituddingt~on,Kottf.;. Parris, Reginald WjIliam, 28, Cedar Road, 14;. Croydon, Sur rcy.Riddell, Androw, 57, Albert Road, Gourock, Scotland. Riddell, George LOW, 37, Winclerrnere Itoatl, JCiiswcll Hill, Imidon, K. 10. Rule, John Frederick James, 28, Alexandra Road, East Ham, London, E.6. Smith, Paul Ignatius, 76, Radcliffe Road, Wcst Briclgford, Xottingharn. Wells, Percival Arthur, 85, Baxter Avenue, Sout)hend-on-Sea. Westwood, John Borthwick, 10, Meadowbank Avenue, Edinburgh. Williams, Hugh Amphlett, 21, Blomfield Road, Maida Hill, London, W.9, Wilson, Herbert Newton, 5, Stanhope Road, Darlington. Wood, David Rainforth, Stanhurst, Burntisland, Fife. Wylde, John Henry, 203, Roleyn Road, Forest Gate, London, E.7. DEATHS.Fellows. Robert Edward Alison. Ernest Bentz. William Greaves. George Downing Liveing, M.A., Xc.D., F.K.S. Student. William Wartl. CHANGES OF NAME. Associates. Miss Doris Y. Barfoot-, H.Sc.-on her marriage, Lo MiddlefoJl. Miss May Sybil Leslie, I).Sc.-on her marriage, to Burr. Student. Arthur Joseph Victor Urnanski-by Ileed I’oll --to Underwood. General Notices. Examinations.---The arrangements for futurc: exaiiiinatioris are as follows:- Last date for Entries. Period of Kxaminatiou. Monday, 16th Feb., 1925. 20th to 25th April, 1925. Monday, zoth July, 1925. or 27th April to 2nd May, 1925. 14th to 19th Sept., 1925. OY nst to 26th Sept., 1925.Notice to Associates.--Associa tes elected prior to February, 1922, who have been continuously engaged. in the study and practical applications of chemistry for at least three years since the election to the Associateship, can obtain from the Registrar particulars of the Regulations and forms of application for the Fellowship. Appointments Register.-A Register of Fellows and Associates of the Institute of Cliemistry who are available for appointments is kept at the Offices of the Institute. For full information, inquiries should be addressed to the Registrar. Fellows and Associates are invited to notify the Institute of suitable vacancies for qualified chemists. Students who have been registered as Studcnis of tht: Institute for not less than six months and are in the last term of their college course may receive the Appointments Register of the Institute on the same terms as Fellows and Associates, provided that their applications for this privilege he endorsed by their Professors.Lists of vacancies are forwarded twice weekly to those whose names are on the Appointments Register. Members and Students who are already in employment, but seeking to improve their positions, are required to pay 10s. for a period of six months. Members and Students who are without employment are required to pay 6s. Gd. for the first period of six months, and, if not successful in obtaining an appointment, will thereafter be supplied with the lists gratis for a further period of six months if necessary.68 The Institute also maintains a Register of Laboratory Assistants who have passed approved Preliminary Examinations and, in some cases, Intermediate Science Examinations. Fellows and Associates who have vacancies for such assistants and students are invited to communicate with the Registrar. The Library.-The Library of the Institute is open for the use of Fellows, Associates and Registered Students between the hours of 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. on week-days (Saturdays: 10 a.m. and I p.m.1, except when examinations are being held. The library consists of books which are likely to be required by candidates during the Institute’s practical examinations. The comprehensive Library of the Chemical Society is avail-able, by the courtesy of the Council of the Society, for the use of Fellows and Associates of the Institute wishing to consult or borrow books, from 10 a.m.to c> p.m. on week-days (Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 5 p.1-11.). Registered Students of the Institute are also permitted for the present year to use the Library of the Chemical Society for reference purposes, but not to borrow books. Fellows, Associates and Registered Students of the Institute using the Library of the Society are required to conform to the Rules of the Society regarding the use of books. Berich te deP Deutschen Chemischen G eseI I schaft.--The Library Committee will be greatly indebted to any Fellow who will assist in making up the set of the Bericlzte for 1924. This Journal has hitherto been given to the Institute by the late Dr.Frank Clowes. Changes of Address.--In view of the expense involved through frequent alterations of addressograph plates, etc., Fellows, Associates, and Registered Students who wish to notify changes of address are requested to give, as far as possible, their permanent addresses for registration. Official Chemical Appointments, 5th Edition.-Registered Students may obtain copies of Official Chemical Appointments at a reduced price of zs., on application to the Registrar. Covers for Journal.-Members who desire covers for binding the Journal (cost about IS. 2d. each) are requested to notify the Registrar of their requirements by indicating the dates of the years for which thy are desirous of binding the JOURNAL.Arrangements have been made with Messrs. A. W. Bain & Co., Ltd., 17-r9, Bishop’s Road, Cambridge Heath, London, E.2, to bind volumes of the JOURNAL AND PROCEEDIKGSon the following terms: Buckram case, lettered complete, TS. zd.; binding, 2s. gd.; postage and packing, 9d.; in all, 4s. 8d. History of the Institute, 1887-191 4.-Anymember who is not in possession of a copy of the History of the Igistitute can borrow one either from the Honorary Secretary of his Local Section or from the Institute direct. Lantern Slides for Lectu res.-Fellows and Associates are invited to co-operate in forming a collection of slides, to be kept at the Institute and placed at the disposal of members who wish to give lectures, or, alternatively to notify the Registrar if they are prepared to lend slides for this purpose.The collection already includes a large number of portraits and pictures of alchemists and chemists. A series of slides relating to the subject of vitamins has been kindly presented by Nessrs. Parke Davis & Co., through Mr. G. R. Boyes. Annual General Meeting.--Tlie ilnnual General Meeting will be held on Monday, 2nd March, at 4.30 pni. Votes for the election of the Officers, Council and Censors must be received at the office of the Institute not later than 4.30 p.m, on Saturday, 28th February. The votes of members whose subscriptions remain unpaid on that date will be disallowed, in accordance with the By-Laws. LOCAL SECTIONS Fellows and Associates who have not alrcady joined a Local Section are invited to communicate with the Hon.Secretaries of the Local Sections within their respective districts. Sections. Hon. Secretaries. Birmingham and Midlands: C. J. House, B.Sc., A.K.C.S., A.I.C., 38, Edmund Road, Saltley, Birmingham. Bristol and South Western A. W. M. Wintle, F.I.C., 170, Newbridge Counties : Road, St. Anne’s Park, Bristol. Edinburgh and East of J. Adam Watson, A.C.G.I., F.I.C., 22, Scotland : Polwarth Gardens, Edinburgh. Glasgow and West of Scot-Dr. W. M. Cumming, F.I.C., Royalland : Technical College, Glasgow. Huddersfield : T. A. Simmons, B.Sc., F.I.C., 27, Lyndale Avenue, Birkby, Huddersfield. Ireland (Belfast) : William Honneyman, B.Sc., F.I.C., York Stroet Flax Spinning Co., Ltd., Belfast.,, (Dublin): Dr. A. G. G. Leonard, F.I.C., 18, Belgreve Road, Dublin. Leeds Area: Dr. €3 B. Forster F.I.C., Dept. of Colour Chemistry and Dyeing, The [Jniversity, Leeds. Liverpool and North John Hanley, F.I.C., 7, University Rond, Western : Bootle, Liverpool. London and South-Eastern G. S. W. Marlow, B.Sc., F.I.C., The Institute Counties : of Chemistry, 30, Russell Square, London, W.C.1. ALanchestcr ttrd I)istric.t : I)r. iZlbert Coult8harcl, W.T.C., 58, Burton Lto:~d,\Vest Didsbury, Manchoster. Newcastle-on-Tyne and C.J.€I. Stock, B.Sc., F.I.C.,County Analyst’s North-East Coast : OKice, Darlington, Co. Durham. South Wales : Cwil W. Wood, A.I.C., C/O The National Oil Refineries, Skemen, Qlarn Malaya : It. 0. Bishop, M.B.E., A.I.C., Department of Agriculture, Kuala Lumpur, Federated I\lalay States.Institute of Chemistry Students’ Association (London). Hon. Secretary: R).T. CLAPDON, 116, Quoen’H Road, I’insbury, N.4, INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY BENEVOLENT FUND. Founded in 1920 as a memorial to Felloivs, Associates and Students who died in the service of their country, 19 14-19 18. Contributions iiiay be forwarded to The Noit. Treasures, BENEVOLE NT U N 11, 1NSTITU TI.] 0F c€IEhl I STRY, 30, rwSSELL SQUARE, LONUON,W.C.I.


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