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The Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal and Proceedings. 1925. Part VI




期刊: Journal and Proceedings of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland  (RSC Available online 1925)
卷期: Volume 49, issue 1  

页码: 333-376




年代: 1925




出版商: RSC


数据来源: RSC



THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. FOUNDED, 1877. INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER, 1885. JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGS. 1925. PART VI. Issued under the supervision of the Publications Commit tee. RICHARD B. PILCHER, Registrar iziid Sccretary. 30, RUSSELLSQUARE, WC. 1.LONDON, December, 1925. Publications Committee, 1925-26 T. SLATER PRICE (Chairman), G. G. HENDERSON (President), H. C. L. BLOXAM, A. J. CHAPMAN, F. D. CHATTAWAY, W. M. CUMMING, LEONARD DOBBIN, A. VINCENT ELSDEN, LEWIS EYNON, W. R. FEARON, R. H. GREAVES, A. J. HALE, C. A. F. HASTILOW, 1. M. HEILBRON, PATRICK H. KIRKALDY (Treasurer). THOMAS MACARA, L. G, PAUL, B. 0. PORRITT, W. D. ROGERS, FRANK SOUTHERDEN. 335 Proceedings of the Council.NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1925. Professional Interests.-The impression that public institutions and associations, possessing chemical staffs and supported directly or indirectly by public funds, are inclined to encroach on the legitimate practice of professional chemists by undertaking analyses and tests at far less than the normal fees, appears to be confirmed by examples which come to the notice of the Institute from time to time. In many cases the fees have been reduced to amounts at which the private practitioner could not possibly undertake the work, and this is liable to create an erroneous idea of the value of the services rendered. It is felt, therefore, that where such work is justifiably undertaken for the public benefit, Fellows and Associates who are engaged in it, having regard to the interests of their professional brethren, should endeavour to make clear to those for whom it is carried out that the fees charged are only possible in a State-aided institution and represent barely, or even less than, the actual expense involved.On the other hand, it is hoped that such institutions will decline work which falls within the legitimate practice of private consultants, and that in the long run their activities will result in the further employment of chemists and the extended application of chemistry generally. Thus, bacterio- logical tests of milk are undertaken by agricultural colleges at the instance of the Ministry of Agriculture for fees of 3s. to 5s.per sample, and in some cases no charge is made to farmers for examinations of milk reported upon by bacteriologists in con- nection with their advisory functions. Those who are most intimately associated with the work feel that there is a demand for these tests and that it has been met by the officials who have in view “the object of clearing up the milk supply of the country”; that the institutions supported by the Ministry have to a large extent created the demand; and that unless some State assistance and encouragement is given to dairymen, it is not likely that they will be able to adopt the technique necessary lor the production 336 of grade “A” milk. When dairymen and vendors of certifird milk understand the value of bacteriological tests, it is hoped that practitioners who specialise in this kind of work will find a new field of activity open to them.British Dyestuffs Industry,-At the meeting of Council held in November, representation was received from several chemists, who appeared to fear that the withdrawal by the Government of its interests in the British Dyestuffs Corporation might have results prejudicial to the interests of British chemists. The Council felt that the proposal would not have been accepted without the most careful deliberation, but addressed a letter to the Board of Trade, transmitting copies of the Memorandum on the British Dyestuffs Industry published in March, 1924, wherein the views of the Council regarding the importance of the industry were set forth.In reply the Board invited the attention of the Council to the question put in the House of Commons on 23rd November, and the reply thereto by the President of the Board, as follows:--(Question). Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Frederick Hall : To ak the President of the Board of Trade whether the Governnicnt has surrendered its interest in the British Dyestuffs Corporation ; if so, upon what terms; and if he will state what steps will he taken to ensure that this country shall not in future find itself handicapped, as was the case during the great war, owing to its dependence upon foreign countries for the supply of aniline dyes. (Answw). Sir Philip Cunliffe-Lister : His Majesty’s Govern- ment have indicated to the Directors of the British Dyestuffs Corporation their willingness to dispose of their shares in the Corporation for the sum of ~600,000,and to terminate their existing rights of veto and control on the conditions that the Corporation enters into an agreement that no more than 25 per cent.of its shares shall be held by foreigners, and that the Corporation will in all matters of technical information and research keep in touch with the Government in such manner as the President of the Board of Trade for the time being may direct. These arrangements, if approved by the shareholders, will give the Corporation the same freedom in the conduct of its undertaking as is enjoyed by the other dye-making companies in this country. The course taken is one which the Government believe, after full consideration, to be in the best interests not 337 merely of the particular company, but of the dye-making industry in this country as a whole.I may add, with regard to the last part of the question, that the Government have no intention of modifying the Dyestuffs (Import Regulation) Act. Examinations.-The Council have received the report of the Board of Examiners on the Examination for the Fellowship in Physical Chemistry held in October, the papers and exercises for which were published in Part V. Two candidates presented themselves for the examination, and one passed, viz., Mr. Jasper Bartlett O'Sullivan, B.Sc., A.I.C. In the Pass List of the Examination in General Chemistry for the Associateship, published in Part V., one of the successful candidates, Mr.Ralph Harry Klein, should have been shown as having been trained at the Chelsea Polytechnic as well as at the Sir John Cass Technical Institute. National Certificates in Chemistry (Northern 1 reland).-U'ith the concurrence of the Ministry of Education (Northern Ireland), the Council has appointed Dr. C. Scott Garrett, Dr. John Hawthorne, and Dr. Gilbert T. Morgan, Examiners for National Certificates in Chemistry (Northern Ireland). York Conference.-The Council has had under considera- tion the resolutions affecting the Regulations moved by Mr. H. J. Evans at the Conference at York in July, viz.:- (I) That, after a certain date, no Associate be admitted to the (2) That, after a certain date, direct admission to the Fellow- Fellowship except by examination.ship be discontinued, except in the very rare cases of men of unquestionable eminence in the world of chemistry. (3) That the Regulations for the admission of Associates be revised to meet certain cases of candidates who have had long experience in positions of high responsibility as chemists, but who have not fulfilled the present require- ments as to training, etc. With regard to (I) the Council has decided not to make any alteration in the present Regulations for the admission of Associates to the Fellowship. With regard to (2)the Council is of opinion that the Nomi-nations, Examinations and Institutions Committee always 338 endeavours to comply strictly with the spirit and letter of the Regulations in respect of direct admission to the Fellowship, to which the Council has reaffirmed its adherence.With regard to (3) the Council has requested the Nomina- tions, Examinations and Institutions Committee to consider the revision of the Regulations in the spirit of this resolution so far as is possible consistent with the provisions of the Charter. The resolution urging the Council to enter into collaboration with other societies interested in chemistry with a view to bringing these societies into closer fellowship and co-operation has also been considered. The Council holds that the Institute has substantially co-operated with the Chemical Society in the unification of chemical libraries ; with the Society of Public Analysts in matters affecting the administration of the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, and the Fertilisers and Feeding Stuffs Act ; and with other professional and technical institutions, in matters affecting patents, the treatment of professional civil servants, the protection of professional designations, and the rights and privileges of chartered bodies and their members.At the same time, Local Sections of the Institute have actively co-operated in all parts of the country with the Local Sections of the Society of Chemical Industry and of other allied societies. It is clear, therefore, that the Institute and its Council are ready to collaborate in any movement of the kind suggested.The Council feels, however, that the position of the Institute is such that it would not be desirable that the Council should take the definite lead in the matter unless it were invited to do so by the other bodies concerned. Appointments Register.-A Special Committee has had. under consideration means for extending the usefulness of the Appointments Register and otherwise increasing the influence of the Institute, with special regard to securing the fullcxst employment of trained and qualified chemists. Benevolent Fund.-The Benevolent Fund Committee has reported to the Council that the receipts for the present year on current account, excluding the balance at the commencement of the year, amount to L643 9s. 3d. compared with &o 11s.II~., while the expenditure for the same period has amounted to k338 11s. 5d., compared with L654 13s. IId. 339 A pamphlet relating to the Fund will be published at thc dose of the year, together with a list of contributors. In expressing their grateful thanks to those who contributed during the last year, the Committee hopes that the number of contributors to the Fund will show a further substantial increasc. during the year 1926. Fellows and Associates are reminded that the Committee has formulated a scheme, approved by the Council, for the granting of annuities to members of the Institute who are permanently incapacitated from practice. The first annuitant has been elected. Contributions, described as douta-:ions, will be applied to this annuity fund, while all other sub-scriptions will be applied to current grants and loans.Regent Street Polytechnic.-The Council has added the name of the Regent Street Polytechnic to the list of in- stitutions recognised for the training of candidates for the Examinations and Associateship of the Institute. Council Attendances.-A record of the attendances of Officers and Members of Council at meetings held during the present session is given on page 376. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesel1schaft.- In response to the appeal which has appeared in the Journal for some the past, Mr. John Wilson, A.I.C., has kindly lent volumes I and 11, 1924,and Nos. 1-7,1925,and has promised to lend further numbers as they are issued. Local Sections.Belfast.-On 24th November, Dr. Scott Robertson presided at the annual dinner of the Section, which was held at the Midland Hotel. Mr. A. P. Hoskins proposed the toast of “The Institute,” to which the Registrar replied, giving an account of the recent work of the Council. On the following day the Registrar called at the Ministry of Education to confer with Dr. Garrett on matters relating to the Examinations for the award of National Certificates in Northern Ireland; and at the Ministry for Home Affairs, where he was received by Dr. Dawson, with whom he discussed questions relating to public analysts, etc. In the evening, at Queen’s University, he gave his lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature ” before the members of the Section and their friends.Birmingham and Midlands.-At the annual general meeting of the Section, held at the Engineers’ Club, Waterloo Street, on 25th November, the accounts to the 31st October were received and the Officers and Committee for the ensuing session were elected as follows:-Chairman, Prof. A. R. Ling; Vice-Chairman, Mr. F. H. Alcock; Hon. Treasurer, Dr. J. N. Friend; Hon. Secretary, Mr. C. J. House; Committee, Messrs. S. A. Brazier, A. W. Knapp, H. T. Pinnock, A. S. Wood, Dr. W. Wardlaw, FeZZows; Messrs. W. B. Auk, J. R. Johnson, A. Lowc, C. E. Wood, Associates. The Section voted a further donation of ten guineas from its unofficial funds to the Benevolent Fund of the Institute.Bristol and South-Western.-The second meeting of the session was held jointly with the Bristol Section of the Society of Chemical Industry on the 12th November in the Chemical Department of the University of Bristol, Sir Ernest €3. Cook presiding. 341 A payer was given by Dr. Ernest Vanstone, of the Seale- Hayne Agricultural College, on “The Rdle of Phosphorus in Agriculture.” After pointing out the importance of agricultural problems to the country and their special interest to chemists, Dr. Vanstone dealt with the function of phosphorus in plant growth. The effect of phosphorus deficiency of soils in New Zealand and America and the great crop increases that followed the application of lime and phosphates showed that exhausted land could often be restored to fertility.The South African experiments in bone meal feeding, as a result of which large increases in the growth of cattle were obtained, were described. Treatment of soils in England with phosphates showed increased production of meat, milk and crops. The question of availability of the phosphates in soils and fertilisers was discussed; experi- ments were described which showed that the use of citric acid iii this connection was unsatisfactory, and that oxalic acid was to be preferred. A discussion followed, in which the Chairman, Prof. Francis, and Messrs. Lewis, Russell, Littlefield, Marsden, O’Brien, and others took part. Dr. Vanstone was cordially thanked for his paper, on the proposition of the Chairman.On 14th November a meeting was held at University College, Exeter, where Sir Ernest H. Cook presided over a numerous attendance, including a number of members from Rristol and from distant parts of Devon. Prior to the meeting, the members made a short tour of Exeter, including a visit to St. Nicholas Priory, which was of much interest. Sir Ernest Cook, having voiced the thanks of the members to the Curator, the party proceeded to university College Caf4 for tea, and was cordially welcomed by Principal Moberley . At the subsequent meeting, a paper was given by Dr. S. Glasstone, of University College, Exeter, on “The Measurement of Over-Voltage,” which was followed by a discussion, in which the Chairman, Mr, Tickle and Dr. Vanstone took part.Votes of thanks were passed to the lecturer, to the Exeter members for their hospitality, and to Prof. W. H. Lewis and the University College Senate for the use of the college rooms. At a meeting of the Section, held jointly with members of the Society of Chemical Industry and the Chemical Society, at Bristol University, on 10th December, Mr. S. H. Piper read a paper on “The use of X-ray in Chemistry.” He said that a lnrgc number of investigators building on thc foundations laid 342 by Lane, Sir William Bragg and W. L. Bragg, had extended the use of X-ray spectroscopy to the elucidation of chemical problems: in the detection of substances by their X-ray spectrum, and the determination of composition by crystal structure.He referred to the discovery of Hafnium by Coster and Hevesey, and work. elucidating the behaviour of molecules in the solid state, which had been carried out on the structure of organic and inorganic compounds, in Sir William Bragg’s laboratory. The paper was illustrated by lantern slides and was followed by a discussion during which Prof. Francis spoke on the im- portance of Mr. Piper’s work. Mr. George Gray presided, and a vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Piper on the motion of Sir Ernest Cook. Cape,-A conference of chemists took place in the physical chemistry laboratories of the University of Cape Town on 25th September, when the President and members of the Cape Chemical Society were the gtrests of the Cape. Section of the Institute.Prof. J. Smeath Thomas, Chairman of the Section, in opening a discussion on “The Training of the Chemist for Industry,” read a letter from Dr. Watson Smith, of the Cape Explosives Works, in the course of which he observed that he had no doubt that the discussion would come to the conclusion that the industry must train the chemist; that the would-be industrial chemist, after obtaining a sound theoretical knowledge of the principles of chemistry, physics, engineering, etc., would have to get into close contact with real industrial problems before his actual training could be said to commence. In introducing the subject, Prof. Smeath Thomas outlined the course that was now being arranged at the Cape Town Uni- versity as a sort of compromise between two somewhat opposing principles of training industrial chemists.The fundamental idea was that a works chemist, at the start of his professional career, should, above all things, have a working knowledge of chemistry. It would be excellent if he were an engineer as well. but in any case a sound chemical training was essential. Cheniical industries had to be looked upon in the mass, when a university was considering how to lay out its course of training, and it had to be the aim of such an institution to provide men who could take their place in any kind of industry. Men going into chemical works must be thoroughly trained in the principles of chemical 343 theory. About eight years ago there had been diversity of opinion whether the training should emphasise the engineering chemist rather than the chemical engineer.The University of Cape Town provided a four ycars’ coiirsc: of training for would-be works chemists. The first year com- prised courses of chemistry and physics, with a short workshop course. In the second year, instruction in chemistry was con- tinued, with a useful course in geometrical and machine drawing; for a man who was going to be placed in charge of chemical plant should possess some capacity for putting his ideas on paper for the guidance of those who had to erect or alter plant. Next, as chemical science was becoming more and more physical and mathematical, provision was made for a further course in physics, including a short course in thermodynamics and in pure and applied mathematics, having regard to their bearing on in- dustrial chemistry.In the third year, theoretical and organic chemistry were taught from the purely scientific standpoint. A physical bias was given where physical chemistry had a direct bearing on any industry. The engineering course provided was not intended to make the student an engineer, but to render his knowledge of use to him in the works. A chemist who went into a works should not be entirely ignorant of the principles of mechanical engineering, whatever truth there might be in the assertion that actual contact with machines in the works afforded the best practical training. The fourth year of the industrial chemist’s training was an engineering year combined with physical chemistry.So far the Cape Town University had not put any of its students through the complete course, but Dr. Thomas expressed the opinion that the course would turn out well-equipped and thoroughly trained works’ chemists. The applied or industrial chemist would be all the better, however, for having been engaged on research problems for a further year. During that year he would not only acquire facility in attacking research problems, but he would acquire the habit of thinking clearly and logically, and of thinking for himself rather than relying 011 what he found in books, or on what others told him. In the discussion which followed, Mr. Scully said that he thought that men who had been equipped by passing through a course such as Dr.Smeath Thomas had outlined would be better capable of tackling their jobs than their predecessors had been. Unfortunately, many works were under the control of 344 purely business men, and those in charge of the works, even where chemistry had been their first low, frequently found it necessary, through stress of circumstances, to lct their science fall into the background, cspecially when they had to deal with labour, and concentrate their attention on other than chemical aspects of industry. There was a great need for a closer apprecia- tion of economic questions on the part of a11 connected with industry. The gibe was repeatedlv thrown at the chemist that he was hopelessly unpractical.Dr. Marloth said that, unfortunately, the gibe was often true. On one occasion, when the utilisation of a certain deposit of guano was in question, a chemist of high standing had produced a report in which he went into all sorts of superfluous minutiae regarding the composition of the guano, and charged a fee of five guineas for stuff that was obviously not worth ten shillings a ton. He had also seen a report by a chemist who recommended a process for rendering Saldanaha Bay phosphates soluble, but wound up his report by saying that he was not aware of any vessel in which such a process could be carried out. It was very unpractical to recommend a process which could not be carried into effect. He suggested that it would be well to add a fifth year to the course outlined, so that a period of actual service in industrial works could be included.Prof. Smeath Thomas remarked that he had omitted to say that students were required to spend a long vacation in an approved factory. Mr. Croghan said that he had sometimes found chemists very academic until they had had some practical experience. They often needed business capacity, and were often too confined to the laboratory atmosphere. He suggested that a sound course in relation to the business side of his industry was essential for t he complete training of an industrial chemist. Mr. van Niekerk dwelt on the need for men employed in industrial concerns being fully conversant with every phase of their work. Dr.Vernon Bosman said that when he entered on his course of industrial training nobody seemed to know the requisites for such a course. American universities which he had visited were each carrying on their courses on radically distinct bases. He, unfortunately, had had no time to study economics or business principles, but, after acquainting himself with the various opinions then current, he had ultimately decided on taking a 345 course, which was very much on thc lines now outlined by Prof. Smeath Thomas. Mr. Weaver expressed his satisfaction with the course described by Dr. Thomas, provided that the student took care to be essentially a chemist. Very few men could be at the same time first class engineers and first class chemists.In most industries the engineer had become a necessity. Industry, in the end, was a matter of E s. d., so that not only the chemical, but also the business aspect of every industry had to be con-sidered. He had yet to find the chemist who could take a deep interest in a grinding machine. For this reason in a well-known chemical factory, where fertilisers were ground and mixed, the chemical side had become rather unimportant when compared with the engineering side. He knew of a small plant for the manufacture of industrial liquid oxygen, and it was evident that here again the engineering aspect was quite as important as the chemical aspect. At one time the man needed to run a plant was a mechanic, but the chemical engineer of to-day had to do much more than that mechanic; the last chemical engineer that he saw at work was making a survey of a projected railway line and constructing a deep cutting to bring that railway to his chemical works. The chemical engineer required a definite status, and it should be realised by all concerned that he was a necessity.Failing that, he predicted that chemical works in their country were not going to be an unqualified success. Dr. L. P. Bosman suggested that the course outlined would be improved by the introduction of dynamic and stratigraphic geology during the fourth year. Dr. Marchand suggested the necessity of making provision in the course for the study of languages. Mr. H. Ferguson said that South Africa was entering on a new phase of industrial life, and in this connection it was worth studying the Customs Tariff Act and the list of substances ad- mitted duty-free for the encouragement of local industries.Touching on the fermentation industries, he mentioned their importance in an agricultural country. These industries should be developed, and the university was expected to train the men' who were capable of developing them. Overseas manufacturers sometimes even found it profitable to spend more on the s2le of certain articles in South Africa than the prices paid for thcm in their country, merely that they might block local manufacture. Prof. Smeath Thomas, replying to the discussion, expressed 346 his appreciation of the opinions that had been given.For the teaching of languages provision had, as a matter of fact, been made. No chemist was equipped unless he was able to read at least French and German; the course provided for instruction in reading technical German. It was, however, a very full course, and for instruction in French there was at present no available time. He wondered why engineers should think that the only man who could acquire business methods and be capable of handling men must of necessity be an engineer, and why a chemist, qua chemist, must necessarily be considered less useful in such matters. As for the working of a liquid air plant, it seemed to have been forgotten that, both in principle and in details, that entire branch of chemical industry was due to the genius of a physical chemist.Dr. Marloth, on behalf of the Cape Chemical Society, expressed the thanks of the Society for the hospitality accorded them and for the pleasure of partaking in a most interesting discussion. The remainder of the evening was devoted to social inter- course. Edinburgh and East of Scotland.-At a meeting of the Section held at the North British Hotel on 10th November, Mr. B. D. W. Luff in the chair, the Registrar gave his lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature,” illustrated by lantern slides. On the following evening a social gathering with music and dancing was held at Crawford’s Rooms, Princes Street. G lasgow and West of Scotland.-At the annual general meeting of the Section on 29th October, the officers were elected as follows :-Chairman, Prof.Forsyth J. Wilson ;Vice-chairman, Mr. Wm. Rintoul; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. J. W. Hawley, in the place of Mr. J. Sorley (resigned); Hon. Secretary, Dr. W. M, Cumming; Hon. Assistant Secretary, Dr. 1. V. Hopper. Messrs. J. Cockburn, J. D. Fulton and D. T. Jones were elected to vacancies on the Committee. The Secretary submitted a report on the session 1924-25 recalling the meetings and social functions which had been held and the papers which had been read. The Committee had drafted and adopted rules for the Section which had been formally approved by the Council and circulated among the members. The present strength of the Section was approxi-mately 300 members. The Chairman of the Section had collected 347 and forwarded a sum of &25 10s.from members of the Sectioii to the Benevolent Fund of the Institute. Since the last annual meeting, twenty-six articles had appeared in the Glasgow Herald and seven articles had been published in the Evening Times, in addition to sixty-one short notes written at the request of the Editor. Altogether, since the inauguration of the publicity programme, about a hundred articles had been published in the Herald and a like number in the Evening Times. Four lectures had been given from the Glasgow Station of the British Broadcasting Company by Prof. Caven, and three by Mr. George S. Ferrier. The Secretary had been in communication during the year with the Belfast, Manchester and Malaya Sections, who were proposing to initiate similar schemes.It was hoped that in the not far distant future the benefit of such publicity, both to the general public and to the profession, would be quite considerable. The Local Section of the Institute, jointly with the Local Sections of the Society of Chemical Industry and the Society of Dyers and Colourists, the Glasgow University Alchemists Club, the Andersonian Chemical Society, and the Ardeer Chemical Club, held the “Ramsay” Chemical Dinner on the 9th December at the Grosvenor Restaurant, Sir Frederick I,.Nathan, President of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, in the chair. A company of over zoo ladies and gentlemen attended, the guests including Sir Donald MacAlister, Principal of the University of Glasgow; Captain W.E. Elliott, M.P., Parliamentary Under- Secretary to the Scottish Board of Health; Sir Robert Robertson, Gbvernment Chemist; Sir Robert Bruce, Editor of The Glasgow Herald; Colonel J. A. Roxburgh, President of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce; and the President and the Registrar of the Institute. After the loyal toasts, Sir Donald MacAlister proposed “The Memory of Sir William Ramsay and the Profession of Chemistry.” He said that he was a trustee of the Ramsay Memorial Fellow- ships, that he had been honoured by Ramsay’s friendship for over thirty years, that he had been privileged to unveil a mom- ment to his memory in his old University of Glasgow, and that he yielded to none in cherishing his memory and his fame.He felt that it was not for him to pronounce a panegyric on Ramsay’s scientific life and work, setting forth his achievements in proper terms and appraising his discoverics as an expert iiiiglit and. 348 should. His was rather a tribute of affection, for Ramsay’s bright and lovable character as a man and as a true son of Glasgow. He told many delightful anecdotes and personal experiences of his meetings with Ramsay, which served to illustrate his temperament and to recall his highly attractive personality. (A verbatim report of Sir Donald MacAlister’s speech appeared in The Glasgow Herald of 10th December.) In referring to the second part of the toast, he said he could not refrain from urging upon chemists the necessity of redeeming the time, of winning all that they could from chemistry while its subject matter still continued to exist.They had a vast field to cultivate and a fertile one, but he feared that it was after all only a thin stratum of soil covering a subterranean hollow; it was supported on what seemed solid pillars-such as the indestructi- bility of matter, the conservation of energy, the permanence of the elements, the invariability of mass, and so on. Nowadays, however, everyone of these pillars was bcing condemned by the physicists, who wanted to substitute insubst an tial electrons, impalpable vibrations, a highly questionable ether, and the pressure of light, for the kindly atoms and the convenient affinities. If they succeeded, and the physical chemists were quietly helping them, by boring holes and widening cracks in the substructure of chemistry-as he knew it and the chemists knew it-then, their seedfield might collapse beneath them and 500 years hence there might be no ground left for the chemists to till.The lower stratum on which the physicists disported themselves might also be ready to collapse and their territories might be resolving into nothing solider than the differential equations, the etherless time-space, and the incomprehensible frames of reference of the relativist mathematicians. The world of chemistry in fact rested on an elephant-the physicist; the elephant rested on a tortoise-the pure mathematician ; and the tortoise rested on-he could not tell-perhaps the unfathomable abyss of meta-physics-the night in which no man can work.(Laughter.) He advised chemists to work out, as they were doing, the inter-relations of the seeming forms of matter that could still be felt, and seen, and weighed, and smelt; to magnify their office for the good of man, who cannot live on electrons alone. Then the present generation and its immediate successors would bless them for the help they brought by their beneficent discoveries, and would try to forgive them for poison gases and high explosives. 349 Sir Frederick Nathan, the Chairman, responding, said that his connection with certain industries had brought home to him very forcibly the all-important part that chemistry played in the industries of the Empire.The profession of chemistry, in the widest application of the term, was a noble one, having regard to all it did and could do for the development and utilisa- tion of natural resources, for the advancement of industry, and for the health and material well-being of humanity. (Applause.) Ramsay was an example of a man who put his unexampled knowledge of chemistry at the service of the community at large, and especially at that of the chemical industry, knowing full well how the application of science to industry must be of enormous benefit to it. A knowledge of chemistry was essential in the case of all processes in which matter underwent a change of state or composition, and without a thorough understanding of those reactions, and their industrial application, British industry, and particularly the chemical industries, could not make progress and could not compete successfully in the markets of the world.(Applause.) That this was so was being gradually but in-creasingly recognised by industrialists. After a reference to fundamental research as having the most far-reaching industrial application , the Chairman declared that there was an increasing appreciation by industry of the need for science, and with a return of industrial prosperity it would be able, and doubtless willing, to devote larger sums to research, and to employ trained chemists, physicists, engineers, and chemical engineers in the conduct of its business and factories. Captain Walter Elliott proposed the toast of “The City of Glasgow,” remarking that she had always turned a friendly side towards scientific discoveries, and that her University had given shelter to Adam Smith and James Watt. Colonel Roxburgh, in reply, said that at the present time Glasgow was being more hardly hit than almost any city in the United Kingdom, for it so happened that the industries which were so much depressed were those which had hitherto formed the basis of Glasgow’s trade.One reason why Glasgow had prospered in the past was that she had maintained the most friendly relations with the University; the City and the Uni- versity had worked together. With regard to chemistry, he knew that Glasgow had provided five Presidents of the Institute of Chemistry, including the present President, Prof.Henderson. No doubt the City would overcome her difficulties and be as 350 great in the future as she had been in the past-that was very largely owing to the co-operation between the learned institutions. Prof. Henderson, in proposing the toast of “The Guests,” expressed to Sir Robert Bruce his thanks for the educational campaign which had been carried on during the past few years through the medium of The Glasgow Herald, through which campaign he felt that Sir Robert had done a service to the country. The toast was acknowledged by Sir Robert Robertson. The remainder of the evening was devoted to music and dancing. Huddersfield.-The annual general meeting of the Section was held at the Queen Hotel on the 23rd October, Dr.H. H. Hodgson in the chair. The accounts for the past session having been approved, the meeting voted five guineas from unofficial funds to the Benevolent Fund of the Institute. The Chairman reported on the work of the previous year. and outlined the programme for the next session. A vote of thanks was accorded Mr. T. A. Simmons for his energetic work as Hon. Secretary. Dr. H. H. Hodgson and Mr. H. S. Foster were elected members of the Committee; Mr. H. W. Moss, Hon. Auditor; and Mr. P. Calam, Hon. Secretary. The proceedings concluded with an informal discussion on the York Conference. An ordinary meeting of the Section was held on 24th November in the Technical College, Dr.Hodgson presiding. Prof. R. Whylaw Gray, of Leeds University, gave a very interesting account of his work on “The Coagulation of Smokes,” and answered questions arising out of the subsequent discussion. Members of the Society of Dyers and Colourists and of the local Smoke Abatement Committee were present, by invitation. An ordinary meeting of the Section was held on 8th December in the Queen Hotel, Dr. Hodgson presiding. The Registrar of the Institute read a paper on the word “Chemist.” He said that since the subject of registration was again to the fore and the use of the word chemist was a matter of the greatest importance in that connection, he proposed to speak on that word and its use from early times and deal with the proposal which sought compulsory registration of chemists.351 The lecturer said that in modern dictionaries the word chemist was primarily defined as one skilled in the science of chemistry, and he thought the simplest definition of chemistry was-the science which treated of the constitution of matter. From what might be described as the mythology of chemistry they gathered that the sacred and secret art chemia was first taught by demons or fallen angels to the children of men. A word corresponding to chemin appeared in very early Greek writings, though not so early in Latin. Alchemists sought first the alcahest or universal solvent, next the philosopher’s stone for the transmutation of metals, and then tlie elixir of life. They were chiefly physicians, monks, and priests, and the nobility, and were not usually associated with commerce. In England the words chemia and alchemiae were used in the thirteenth century by Roger Bacon and in the fifteenth by George Ripley.They might surmise that chemistry, regarded as know- ledge applied to industries, such as thc working of metals, brewing, pottery, and the manufacture of oils arid soaps, existed in periods coeval with the beginnings of civilisation. The awakening of knowledge regarding the nature of the materials employed must have followed closely on such application. In the absence of any scientific system chemistry could not be said to have existed as a science until the seventeenth century, when a beginning was made under the influence of such nien as Boyle and Beccher to bring together the scattered facts of tlie alchemist and to reduce these facts to principles, so that the rudiments of the science, freed from the follies of alchemy, were then evolved.THEAPOTHECARIES. In England the apothecaries-originally dealers in roots, herbs, syrups, and the like-had their origin in the spicers (about IZOO A.D.), and were early associated with the grocers, including drug-grocers or druggists. The spicer was not neces- sarily an apothecary, but the latter was a spicer, and frequently dealt in confectionery. The earliest known mention of ;ill apothecary by name referred to John the Apothecary, who was said to have prepared the materials for embalming Robert the Bruce (rpg), and the next when Coursus de Gangeland attended Edward I11 in Scotland, and was rewarded by a pension of 6d.per day for life. Thus, in the fourteenth century the apothecary appeared as the person whose business was the 352 preparation of drugs for the physician. The apothecaries obtained their supplies from the druggists, who dealt in materials for the preparation of galenicals and from chymists who prepared mineral medicines by fire. A number of chemical operations such as distillation and sublimation were obviously practised in very early times, and the chymists who were engaged in the definite business of preparing mineral medicines could be properly regarded as the forerunners of the manufacturing chemists of the present day.As the apothecaries encroached on the func- tions of the physician, the druggists in the course of the sixteenth century usurped those of the apothecaries and became preparers and compounders of medicines, and the physicians then retaliated in many cases by maintaining their own dispensaries. In 1511, however, the physicians were given the exclusive right to practise medicine in London and for seven miles around, and in 1540 and 1553 acquired the power to examine, correct, and punish apothecaries, druggists, and sellers of waters and oils, and preparers of chemical medicines. In 1617 the apothecaries dissociated themselves from the grocers, and when they obtained a charter of their own the grocers were forbidden to keep apothe- caries' shops, but many of the physicians still attended to their own preparing and compounding of medicines, and the over- lapping continued.The physicians and apothecaries continued to wrangle for a period of fifty years, and the latter strengthened their position by remaining in London during the Great Plague, when most of the physicians had fled, and as a result the apothe- caries were successful in securing the legal right to practise medicine, although for long after the sellers of drugs went by their name . The lecturer added that they must acknowledge the con-sideration shown to their views by those engaged in pharmacy who had dropped the use of the word chemist for that of fdzarmacist, a modern title which did not appear in thedictionaries of thirty years ago.He thought they disliked most of all such expressions as "cash chemists,'' "stores chemists," and "British and foreign chemists." The question of restricting the use of the title was, to his mind, inseparable from that of registration for practice. If they restricted the practice they must define the people to whom it was restricted. Many, he thought, were in favour of doing something towards registration and restriction. He believed that without waiting fifty or sixty years for the possession of legal powers of doubtful utility the public would 353 learn through the work of the chemists themselves and through organisation under the institute to call a chemist by his proper name, and to recognise and appreciate more and more fully his part in the work-a-day world.They were now in the age of chemistry, and the chemist was coming into his own. Chemists themselves, the lecturer contended, should use their own title and speak of pharmacists as pharmacists. An appeal should be made to pharmacists themselves to foster this movement for the sake of fair play to the profession to which, after all, they must look for the scientific knowledge which was the basis of manufacture of many of the materials employed in their crafi. The discussion which followed centred mainly on the regis- tration of chemists and the education of public opinion, particu- larly of employers and prospective employers. It was further suggested that a permanent record of the lecture should be prepared.Replying to a vote of thanks, Mr. Pilcher hinted at the possible future publication of a book on “Alchemists and Chemists,” and made a few suggestions as to how public opinion might be influenced. Irish Free State.-The annual general meeting of the Section was held in the chemical lecture theatre, Trinity College, Dublin, on 10th November, Mr. O’Farrelly in the chair. The reports of the Hon. Secretary and Hon. Treasurer were read and adopted, and the Committee was elected as follows:-Prof. Adeney, Mr. Fagan, Dr. Leonard, Dr. Millar, Mr. O’Farrelly Mr. Parkes and Prof. Young. Mr. Brownlee and Mr. O’Callaghan were re-elected as Hon. Auditors. On the 26th November, the Registrar visited Dublin and gave a lecture at Trinity College on “Alchemists and Chemists in the Art and Literature of the Middle Ages ” before the members of the Irish Section and their friends.Prof. Young presided in the absence of Prof. Adeney, through illness. LiverpooI and North-Western.-The sixty-fourth general meeting of the Section was held in October, Prof. W. H. Roberts presiding. At the request of the Chairman, Prof. Heilbron gave his impressions of the Conference held at York in July, and a short discussion followed. 354 The seventh annual general meeting of the Section was held on the 12th November at St. George’s Restaurant, Red Cross Street. The balance sheet for the past session was received and the Officers and the Committee for the ensuing session were elected as follows :-Chairman, Mr.A. Smetham; Committee, Prof. C. 0. Bannister, Messrs. R. B. Croad, R. Crosbie-Oates, A. E. Findley, Prof. I. M. Heilbron, Messrs. E. Gabriel Jones, R. A. Morton, Prof. W. H. Roberts, Messrs. H. Rogerson, 17. J. Smith, T. W. Stuart, Dr. R. Thomas, and Mr. H. J. Evans, ex oficio as District Member of Council; and Mr. John Hanley, I-Ion. Secretary and Treasurer. The Chairman announced that a Dinner had been arranged to be held jointly with the Society of Chemical Industry and the British Association of Chemists on 19th December at the Midland Adelphi Hotel, and preliminary arrangements were made for the programme of a proposed joint soirke of learned Societies in the Liverpool district to be held in February, 1926.Some consideration was given to the question of promoting further publicity with regard to the importance of chemistry in industry and commerce. At a meeting of the Section held on 10th December, at St. George’s Restaurant, the Hon. Secretary reported on the pro- ceedings of a meeting of the Sub-committee of the Manchester Section which has been appointed to deal with the question of registration of chemists. A discussion ensued and the Hon. Secretary was asked to communicate the views expressed to the Manchester Sub-committee. The Section appointed Dr. R. A. Morton as Hon. Manager of the Publicity Department with a view to securing the publication of articles, on chemistry and its applications, in the public press.London and South-Eastern.-On 21st October, at a meeting of the Section held at University College, London, Sir Robert Robertson presiding, the Registrar gave his lecture on “Alchemists and Chemists in Art and Literature,” illustrated by lantern slides. The annual general meeting of the Section was held at the Institute on 18th November, Sir Robert Robertson in the chair. The financial statement for the past year was received and adopted. Replying to Mr. Barrs, the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Arthur J. Chapman, stated that it was felt necessary to retain the balance 355 in hand in order to meet the less official obligations of the Section and to provide against the possibility that the present arrange- ments for financing local sections might not be permanent. The Officers and Committee were elected as follows:-Chairman, Sir Robert Robertson ; Vice-Chairmen, Messrs.E. R. Bolton and R. L. Collett; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Arthur J. Chap-man; Committee, Messrs. C. E. Barrs, E. T. Brewis, W. T. Burgess, Dr. Frankland Dent, Messrs. B. F. Howard, E. B. Hughes, S. J. Johnstone, D. W. Kent-Jones, T. Macara, Dr. G. T. Morgan, Dr. W. R. Ormandy, and Mr. P. J. Sageman (Fellows), Mr. A. V. Hussey, Mrs. P. M. Kerridge, Messrs. S. A. de Lacy, T. McLachlan, Miss S. M. L. Snelus, and Mr. F. J. Tritton (Associates); Mr. G. S. W. Marlow was re-elected Hon. Secretary. The Chairman reported briefly on the work of the Committee, referring in particular to the steps which had been taken towards co-ordinating the various chemical activities in London.An informal committee of the Secretaries of the chemical bodies had formulated a joint meeting card, and had succeeded in avoiding the over-lapping of meetings and in providing joint meetings between the various bodies. From their labours some statistics had been obtained as to the numbers of members common to two or more societies. Although the figures for the Chemical Society could not be included in these statistics, he felt that one fact stood out, namely, that, out of nearly 1800 members of the Institute local section, only 628 belonged to one or more of the other societies. Of these only 403 belonged to the Society of Chemical Industry. He felt that this was deplor- able.The argument that the journals of these societies could be seen in the laboratory was no adequate excuse; the valuable information contained in these journals could not be studied in the few spare moments thus afforded. He appealed to members of the Institute, so far as they were able, to pull their weight. On the conclusion of the official business, light refreshments were served, after which an enjoyable smoking concert was held, the artistes being : Mrs. Boseley, the Misses Maconochie and Macdonaugh, and Messrs. Paget and Taylor. Mr. Boseley shared with Mr. Kipps the onus of accompaniment. The whole company, led by Sir Robert Robertson and Mr. Marlow, joined in singing a number of choruses and sea chanties. The evening broke up with a vote of thanks to the artistes and the singing of “Auld Lang Syne.” 360 Manchester and District.-The eighth annual general meeting of the Section was held on 26th October, Mr.S. E. Melling in the chair. After the transaction of the formal busi- ness, the Chairman referred to the losses which the Section had suffered by death. Mr. Melling, having announced his retirement from the Chairmanship, a very hearty vote of thanks, proposed by Mr. Mills, seconded by Mr. Walmsley, was accorded him for his valuable services. Mr. Scholefield gave his impressions of the Conference held at York in July last, particularly with regard to the question of the registration of chemists. He did not agree that the resolution in favour of the consideration of this question by the Council was passed only by a slight majority, but rather by a majority of about 2 to I. A discussion followed, in which Mr.Melling, Mr. G. D. Elsdon, Dr. Herbert Levinstein, Mr. R. L. Collett, Assistant Secretary of the Institute, and others took part. The chair was afterwards taken by Dr. Levinstein, the newly elected Chairman, who thanked the members for the honour of election to that office, and expressed his great willingness to give his services on behalf of the Section. He also thanked Mr. Collett for his presence at the meeting and for the expression of his views on registration. The publication of a more complete account of the meeting has been postponed at the request of the Section Committee, who intend shortly to put forward a case for registration to be avail- able for members of Council and all who are interested in the quest ion.Newcastle and North-East Coast.---The annual general meeting was held in the chemical lecture theatre, Armstrong College, on the 25th November; Dr. J. T. Dunn presided in the unavoidable absence of Prof. Henry Louis. The annual report of the Committee was received and adopted, and the following were elected members of the Com- mittee: Messrs. C. F. Allpress, Dr. P. E. Bowles, Dr. W. B. Davidson, Dr. J. T. Dunn, Dr. A. A. Hall, Mr. T. Wallace (Hon. Treasurer), and Mr. H. R. Whitehead. The resignation of the Hon. Secretary, Mr. C. J. €1. Stock, having been accepted with regret, a cordial vote of thanks was passed, on the motion of the Chairman, to Mr.Stock for his 357 services in that capacity during the past four years. Messrs. J. B. Duncan and A. Short were re-elected Auditors; Mr. F. H. Walker was elected Hon. Secretary. On the conclusion of the formal business, Prof. H. V. A. Briscoe delivered a highly interesting lecture to the members on “Some Analytical Methods used in Atomic Weight Determi- nations. ” South Wales.-The seventh annual general meeting was held at Swansea on 20th November, Prof. J. E. Coates in the chair. The report of the Hon. Secretary and statement of accounts having been received and adopted, Messrs. C. A. Seyler and J. W. Adye were re-elected on the Committee. Messrs. E. A. Tyler and E.E. Ayling were re-elected Hon. Auditors, and Mr. C. W. Wood, Hon. Secretary, for the ensuing year. The meeting was followed by a smoking concert. At a joint meeting with the local Section of the Society of Chemical Industry, held at the Technical College, Swansea, on 27th November, Mr. E. S. Squire, of the National Oil Refineries, Ltd., gave a very interesting paper on “A New and Rapid Method for the Determination of Sulphur in Petroleum Products,” which impressed those present as to its great value for refinery control purposes or for general analytical use. A good discussion followed, in which Messrs. Seyler, Tyler and Cox amongst others took part, and the feeling was expressed that the paper should be published in Chemistry and Industry, so that the method might become more widely known.The Hon. Secretary mentioned that this was the first paper on an original piece of work that the Section had been favoured with for some time. Notes. Chemistry in Civilisation.-The Technical Number of Chemicals, published in New York on 23rd November, announces that the chief theme for the Conference of the Institute of Politics to be held at Williamstown, Mass., in 1926 will be “The R81e of Chemistry in the Future Affairs of the World.” Leading men of science in the United States, Great Britain and the Continent will participate, and Dr. James F. Norris, President of the American Chemical Society, indicates that this subject has been chosen in order to impress upon governments and peoples that chemistry is so profoundly affecting the destinies of mankind in peace and war as to become an in-separable factor in the shaping of international affairs.The Conference will discuss food supplies, energy, waste in industry, efficiency in production, synthetic zleysus natural products, chemical developments in their relation to labour, and chemistry in relation to national defence and health. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry will meet at Washington, D.C., during the week commencing 6th September, 1926. Am eri can I nstitute of C he m i sts.-The American Institutc of Chemists has adopted a code of ethics, governing professional conduct towards employers, partners, clients, fellow chemists and the public.It will be noted that the Code, which is printed below as a matter of interest, differs from that of professional bodies in Great Britain; for example, it allows a member to advertise in “a dignified manner, being careful to avoid misleading statements,” while the By-Laws of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland expressly forbid soliciting for practice. PRINCIPLES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT INSTITTJTEADOPTEDBY THE COUNCILOF THE AMERICAN OF CHEMISTS. The profession of chemistry has become an increasingly important factor in the progress of civilisation and in the welfare of the community. Chemists are entitled to the position and authority which will enable them properly to discharge their responsibilitiea and render effective 369 service to humanity.In order that the honor and dignity of the pro-fession be advanced and maintained, the American Institute of Chemists has prepared the following Code to define the rules of professional conduct and ethics, binding on its members. 1. Every individual on entering the profession of chemistry and thereby becoming entitled to full professional fellowship, incurs an obli- gation to advance the science and art of chemistry, to guard and uphold its high standard of honor, and to conform to the principles of professionalconduct. 2. It is the duty of a chemist to bear his part in sustaining the laws, institutions and burdens of his community. 3. The chemist shall not knowingly engage in illegal work or co-operate with those so engaged.4.A chemist shall carry on his professional work and act in a strict spirit of fairness to employers, contractors, and clients, and in a spirit of personal helpfulness and fraternity toward other members of the chemical profession. 5. He shall refrain from associating with, or allowing the use of his uame by any enterprise of questionable character. 6. He shall co-operate in upbuilding the profession by exchanging general information and experience with his fellow chemists and by contributing to the work of technical societies and the technical press, where such information does not conflict with the interests of his client or employer. It is very desirable that the first publication regarding in- ventions or other scientific advances be made through the 6echnicel societies and technical publications and not through the public press.Care shall be taken that credit for technical work be attributed as far as possible to the real authors of the work. 7. He shall advertise only in a dignified manner, being careful to avoid misleading statements. 8. If in his opinion work requested of him by clients or employel’s seems to present improbability of successful results, he shall so advise before undertaking the work. 9. He shall be conservative in all estimates, reports, testimony, etc., and especially so if these are in connection with the promotion of a business enterprise. 10. He shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one interested party without the consent of all parties concerned, and shall not accept commissions from outside parties on sales to his client or employer without their knowledge.He is, however, in no way debarred from accepting employment from more than one employer where there is no conflict of interests. 11. He shall not use any unfair, improper or questionable methodsof securing professional work or advancement and shall decline to pay or accept commissions for securing such work. 12. He may use all honorable means in competition to securo professional employment but shall not, by unfair means, injure directly or indirectly the professional reputation, prospects or business of a fellow chemist and shall not attempt to supplant a fellow chemist after definite steps have been taken toward the latter’s employment.13. He shall not knowingly accept employment by a client or employer while the claim for compensation or damage, or both, of a fellow chemist previously employed by the same client or employer and whose employment has been terminated, remains unsatisfied, or until such claim has been referred to arbitration or issue has been joined at law, or unless the chemist previously employed has neglected to press his claim legally. 14. He shall be diligent in exposing and opposing such errors and frauds as his special knowledge enable him to recognise. 360 15. Any infractions of these principles of professional conduct, coming to his attention, shall be reported to the Ethics Committee of the American Institute of Chemists.16. He shall not attempt to compete with a fellow chemist on the basis of professional charges by reducing his usual charges in order to underbid after being informed of the charges named by the competitor. 17. He shall not accept any engagement to review the professional work (except journal articles and similar scientific publications and in litigation) of a fellow chemist without the knowledge of such chemist or unless the connection of such chemist with the work has been terminated. 18. When undertaking work for a client or employer, he should enter into an agreement regarding the ownership of any and all data, plans, improvements, patents, designs or other records which he may develop or discover while in the employ of such a client or employer.In the absence of a written understanding the following rules are held to apply:(a)If a chemist uses information obtainable only from his client or employer which is not common knowledge or public property, any results in the form of designs, plans, inventions, processes, etc., shall be regarded as the property of the employer. (b) If a chemist uses his own knowledge or information or data which by prior publication or otherwise is public property, then the results in the form of designs, plans, inventions, processes, etc., remain the property of the chemist and the client or employer is entitled to their use only in the case for which the chemist was retained.(c) All work and results accomplished by the chemist outside of the field for which he was employed or retained are the property of the chemist. (d) Special data or information obtained by a chemist from his client or employer or which he creates as a result of such information, are to be considered confidential, and while it is ethical to use such data or infor-mation in his practice as forming part of his professional experience its publication without permission is improper. 19. He shall as far as possible in consulting work fix fees at a point high enough to warrant complete and adequate service. Unreasonablylow charges for professional work tend towards inferior and unreliable work. In fixing fees it is proper for him to consider: (a) The time and labor involved, the novelty and difriculty of the matter and the experience and skill necessary.(b) Whether the employment precludes other employment in similar lines or will involve the loss of other business while engaging in the particular work. (c) Customary charges of chemists for similar services. (d) The magnitude of the matter involved and the benefits resulting (e) The character of the employment, whether casual, or for an es- to the client from the services. tablished and constant client. 20. While it is desirable that chemists engaged in teaching and research should be permitted to use their special knowledge and skill in direct service to individual clients, it is prejudicial to the welfare of the profession for such services to be rendered at rates which ignore the ordinary costs of equipment, supplies and overhead expenses.21. Having established a fair fee and billed same to a client, 110 should oppose any effort of a client to have such fee reduced without real and sufficient cause. Wherever compatible with self-respect and the right to receive a reaxonable recompense for services rendered, controversies with clients regarding compensation are to be avoided. There should, however, be no hesitation to apply to the courts for redress to prevent injustice, imposition or fraud. 361 New Zealand.-Information recently received from New Zealand shows that the Dominion Government has referred to Sir Ernest Rutherford, who has recently visited the Dominion, the question of the relation of science to the industries of that country, with special reference to the Report of the Sub-Com- mittee set up to consider the needs and interests of manu-facturers there, with regard to scientific and industrial research.It would appear from available data that the industries in New Zealand do not utilise the assistance of modern science to the extent that they might for their own benefit. The number of manufacturing establishments, other than meat works and those connected with milk, is shown to be 3789, involving the employment of over 65,000 persons, earning over ten million pounds, and manufacturing goods worth over forty- four million pounds; and yet the number of chemists employed (not including laboratory assistants) so far as can be ascertained does not exceed 5.The factories concerned with butter, cheese, and the preservation of meat, etc., number 529, with 11,162 employees, earning over two million pounds in wages and salaries, with a production value of over thirty-two million pounds; and yet the number of chemists known to be employed (not including laboratory assistants) is less than 10. The number of private consulting chemists is very small, but manu- facturers appear to expect work to be done by universities and State-aided institutions gratuitously, or at very little cost, and well qualified and competent chemists with good experience have found it very difficult to obtain appointments in the Dominion.In abstracting the Report of the Department of Scient@c and Industrial Research. for the Journal, Part V., a statement was made (p. 306) regarding the Linen Industry Research Association and the British Association for the Cocoa, Chocolate, Sugar, Confectionery and Jam Trades which may be liable to misunder- standing. The statement should have been to the effect that further aid was being made to these Associations based upon an effective expenditure of approximately &IZ,OOO and E6,ooo respectively. Mr. Theodore Schwarz, F.I.C., has been appointed Vice- Consul of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia for the Northern part of Mexico. Mr. John Evans, F.I.C., has been nominated for the office of Sheriff for Cardiganshire.362 Obituary. JAMESGRANT died at Prestwich, Manchester, iii his 67th year. Educated at Owens College, he passed the examination for the Associate- ship of the Institute in 1889, and was elected a Fellow in 1893. He was for many years a lecturer and demonstrator in chemistry at the Municipal Technical School (later the College of Technology), Manchester, and, as Head of the Foodstuffs Department, was especially interested in breadmaking and brewing. In 1910 he received the degree of M.Sc .Tech. (Mane. ). REGINALDARTHUR JOYNER lost his life as the result of an explosioii 011 7th October, in his thirty-ninth year. He was educated at the Uni- versity of Bristol, where he held the Chemical-Metallurgical Scholarship and graduated with the degree of B.Sc.( Lond.).He subsequently obtained the M.Sc. (Bristol) and proceeded on an 1851 scholarship to Zurich, and later to Karlsruhe, where he obtained the Diplom Ing. and Dr. Ing., after examination by Engler and Bredig. At the outbreak of war he was a Captain in the 5th Royal Scottish Fusiliers, and served with that unit until he was seconded, in January, 1915, to take up an appointment with Messrs. Nobel’s, Ltd. He was some time manager of the Perranporth Factory, then became engaged in the technical department at the head office in Glasgow, and later in the research department at Stevenston. In the course of his work at Bristol he produced three papers on amalgams of silver and tin used in dental metallurgy, and at Karlsruhe he worked on the affiity constant of hydrogen peroxide and the catalysis of camphor- carbonic acids by bases in various solvents. He was elected an Associate of the Institute in 1917.EDMUNDKNECHT,who died on 8th December, in his sixty-fifth year, at Marple, was born at Liverpool and received his education in science at Zurich, where he obtained the degree of Ph.D., and subsequently worked for a year as assistant to Prof. Victor Meyer. In 1884 he became head of the Department of Chemistry and Dyeing at the Bradford Technical College, and in 1890, Chief Lecturer in Chemistry and Dyeing at the Manchester College of Technology, where in 1902 he was appointed to the Chair of Tinctorial Chemistry, and later became Associate Professor of Applied Chemistry.In 1884, also, when the Society of Dyers and Colourists was founded, he was appointed Editor of the Journal of the Society, with which he was associated for over forty years, part of the time jointly with Mr. Christopher Rawson and later with Prof. Walter M. Uardner. He was elected a Fellow of the Institute in 1888. WILLIAMROBERTLANG,who died suddenly at Toronto recently in his fifty-fifth year, was educated at the University of Glasgow, where he obtained the degree of Doctor of Science, and was for ten years (1890- 1900) an assistant to Prof. Ferguson. In 1900, he was appointed Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Chemical Department in the University of Toronto. He published several papers in the Journal of the Society of Cherrbical Industry and the Journal of the Chemical Society.In 1903 he 363 was Chairman of the Canatliaii Section of ibe Society of Chemical Tiidustry, and was elected a Fellow of the Institute in the same year. During the> war he was on active service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, in which he held the rank of Colonel, and subsequently hccnme Director of Military Studies in the University of Toronto. ROBERTWALTERODDYdied 011 24th November at, Ltochdalo in his seventy-fifth year. He was educated in science at Owens College, Man- Chester, and under Mr. Taylor, analytical chemist of Rochdale, in which town Mr. Oddy himself established a practice about forty years ago. He passed the qualifying examination and was elected an Associate of the Institute in 1899, and a Fellow in 1892.JAMES died in April last in his fortiet,h WILLIAM HENRY PATTISON year. He received his education in science at the Glasgow and West of Scotland-now the Royal-Technical College, Glasgow, where he obtained the diploma A.R.T.C. before passing the Intermediate Examination of t'he Institute in July, 1907, and the Final Examination in the branch of Mineral Chemistry in July, 1908. During the war he served with the Scottish Rifles and attained the rank of Major. SHYAMAKANT died at Davos Platz, Switzerland, GOVIND SARDESAI on 28th November in his twenty-seventh year. He was born at Ahmednagar, his father being high officer under H.H. The Maharajah the Gaekwar of Bawda, and also tutor to the Gaekwarprinces.He was educated at Santiniketan (where he was a pupil of Rabindranath Tagore) and at Fergusson College, Bombay, where he graduated as B.A. and B.Sc. before proceeding to the University of Berlin, where he obtained the degree of Ph.D. for researches on an Indian oil and on some ethylene ethers of vanillin. He was elected an Associate of the Institute in 1924. ROBERT TAYLORLLEWELLYN died at Whalley Range, Manchester, on 8th November, in his seventy-fifth year. He received his early chemical experience under Mr. J. H. Calvert at the Calico Print Works at Sabden, Lancashire, and in 1869 became assistant to Prof. Alexander Williamson at University College, London, with whom he remained for three years. He was then appointed assistant Chemistry Master in the Manchester Grammar School, under Mr.Francis Jones, and had occupied that position for over five years, when he was elected a Fellow of the Institute in 1878. At the time of his death he was organising Science Master for the Man- Chester Education Committee and Principal Master in the MunicipalCentral Secondary School. ARTHURWILSON, who died at Woldingham, Surrey, in his thirty- seventh year, was educated at Borden Grammar School, Sittingbourne, and at The College, Herne Bay, Kent. He matriculated at the University of London and studied for three years at Finsbury Technical College, under Prof. Meldola, to whom he was junior research assistant for six months before he became assistant to Dr. R. Lessing, with whom he was associated fop five years.During the war he attained the rank of Major in the Leinster Regiment and gained the Military Cross. After demobilisation in December, 1919, he secured an appointment as Assistant-Superintendent,in the Government Harness and Saddlery Factory, Cawnpore. He passed the Intermediate Examination of the Institute in January, 1912, and the Final Examination in Organic Chemistry in July of the same year. He was elected a Fellow in 1919. 364 Books and their Contents. The following books have been presented by the authors or publishers, and may be seen in the Library of the Institute:- “Applied Chemistry; A Practical Handbook for Students of Household Science and Public Health.” Vol. II., Foods.C. K. Tinkler and H. Masters. Pp. xi.+276. (London: Crosby Lockwood & Son.) 15s. Milk; edible oils; fats; carbohydrates; raising agents for baking; meat and meat extracts; vinegar, fruit juices and vegetable acids; beverages ; preservation of food; poisonous metals in food ;cooking; condiments; the calorific value of foods. “Chemistry, Three Centuries of.” Phases in the Growth of a Science. Irvine Masson. Pp. vi. +I~I. (London: Ernest Benn, Ltd.) 10s. 6d. Rise of scientific thought, including the beginnings of the Royal Society; genesis of modern chemistry; search for the elements; search for the structural units ;postscript on professional chemistry ;index of personsand subjects. “Drugs, The Chemistry of.” Norman Evers. Pp. vii.+ 247. (London: Ernest Benn, Ltd.) 32s. 6d. Part I.: Synthetic drugs : hypnotics, antipyretics, anaesthetics and antiseptics, compounds of arsenic, antimony and mercury. Part 11.: Drugs of natural origin: alkaloidal drugs and drugs not containingalkaloids. Appendices: (i) chemical constitution and physiologicalaction; (ii) lists of drugs. “Dyestuffs, Intermediates for.” A. Davidson. Pp. xii. + 256. (London: Ernest Benn, Ltd.) 36s. Derivatives of chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzene, aniline, the phenols,nitrotoluenes, xylene, naphthalenes, /3-nraphthol, phthalic anhydride, anthracene and anthraquinone ; stabilised diazo compounds ; miscel-laneous intermediates. ‘‘Hexosamines and Mucoproteins.” p. A. Levene. Mono-graphs on Bio-chemistry. Pp. x.+163. (London: Long-mans, Green & Co.) 10s. 6d. 365 *‘ Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, A Comprehensive Treatise on.” J. W. Mellor. Pp. x. 1-1024. (London: Longmans, Green & Co.) E3 3s. Vol. VI.. Carbon (Part II.), Silicon and Silicates. “Science, Religion and Reality.” Edited by J. Needharn. Pp. 396. (London: The Sheldon Press.) 12s. 6d. Historical relations of religion and scicxice; the domain of physical science ; meellanistic biology and tho religious consciousness ; religionand psychology ;science, Christianity and modern civilisation. The Institute of Chemistry Students’ Association (London). On Thursday, 29th October, 1925, Mr. G. G. Pullen, the Hon. Secretary, opened an informal discussion by proposing that “Examinations are not conclusive evidence of a candidate’s capabilities.’’ On Thursday, 26th November, a debate was held, Mr.E. S. Hawkins proposing the motion that “This house deplores the prominence given to Applied Chemistry in College Courses.” The opposition was led by Mr. D. M. Freeland. The meetings of the Association are now held at 7 p.m. instead of 8 p.m., and tea and light refreshments are served from 6.30 p.m. A number of interesting fixtures has been arranged for the remainder of the Session, notices of which will be sent to members in due course. 366 The Register. At the meetings of Council held on 20th November and 18th December, 1925, I new Fellow was elected, 14 Associates were elected to the Fellowship, 50 new Associates were elected, and 41 Students were admitted.The Institute has lost 6 Fellows and z Associates by death. New Fellow. Pickles, Sarniiol Shrowder, D.Sc. (Mano.), Westoonibe, Blooinfield Park, Bath. Associates elected to the Fellowship. Austin, Charles Reuben, M.Sc.Tech. (Manc.), Ph.D. (q7ales), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. Bell, Herbert Dearman, Sewage Works, Burton Grange, Barnsley, Yorks. Cullinane, Nicholas Michael, Ph.D. (N.U.I.), Chemistry Department, University College, Cardiff. Cutting, Percival Harman, 6, Brough Street, Goole, Yorks. Haworth, Robert Downs, B.Sc. (Oxen), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Manc.), 221, Stock-port Road, Cheadle Heath, Stockport. Irodale, Thomas, B.Sc. (Sydney), D.Sc. (Lond.), Chemical Laboratories, University College, Gower Street, London, W.C.1. Martin, Charles William, 66, Mitcham Road, East Ham, London, E.6. Nanji, Dinshaw Rattonji, D.Sc. (Birm.), Bio-Chemical Department, The University, Edmund Street, Birmingham. Phillips, Reginald John, 30, VSToodlands Park Road, Kings’ Nortori, Birmingham. Powell, Charles Wilfrid Roberts, c/oThe Colonial Sugar IGefining Co., Ltd., Sydney, N.S.W., Australia. Pullman, Arthur Donald Rieber, B.Sc. (Vict.), 11, Eliot Park, London, S.E.13. Smith, Williarn, A.R.T.C., 117, Forth Street, Grangemouth. Sutcliffo, John Algernori Lacy, c/o Messrs. m7illia1~l Butler & Cu., Ltd., Crews Hole, Bristol. ‘Sait, Ada,m, 15, Comely Bank Avenue, Edinburgh. Nex Associates. Alford, Gerard George, A.R.C.S., 7, Guernsey Grove, Herne Hill, London, S.E.24.Anderson, Alfred Milburn, B.A. (Dub.), 7, Trinity College, Dublin. Anstey, John Henry, B.Sc. (Liv.), 240, Dentons Green Lane, St. Helens, Lancs. AniotC, Tftwry, R.Rc. (Rirm.), Coton H’e~l~hRti(1, Xiiticttt 011. 367 Back, Sydney, B.Sc. (Lond.), 5, Medley Road, West Hampstead, Lolidon, N.W.6. Bamford, John Sherlock, Hazelwood, The Park, Che1tenha.m. Blackwell, Percy George, B.Sc. (Lond.), 125, Latchmere Road, hvender Hill, London, S.W.ll. Hoswell, Kenneth Storer, S.Sc. (Birm.), 12, Cranbourne Road, Muswell Mill, London, N.lO. Burton, John Headland, B.Sc. (Lond.), 26, Bell Street, Sawbridgeworth, Herts. Cast, George Dale, B.Sc. (Lond.), 110, Gaskarth Road, Balham, London, S.W.12.Cochrane, Lieut.-Colonel Charles William, D.S.O., B.Sc. (Edin.), The Technical College, Bell Street, Dundee. Cohen, Wilby Edison, B.Sc. (W. Australia), 24, Park Street, South Yarra, Victoria, Australia. Duvoisin, Alexander Hurll, B.Sc. (alas.), 4, Kensington Gate, Glasgow, W.2. Dyer, Frederick John, B.Sc. (Lond.), 56, Sandringham Road, Cardiff. Fell, Eric Whineray, B.Sc. (Birm.), Belle Vue, Ulverston, Lancs. Fells, Henry Alexander, B.Sc. (Lond.), 33, Carter Lane, Mansfield, Not t,s. C?erman, Eric, A.C.G.F.C., 75, Dunsmure Road, Stamford Hill, London, N.16. Goldstein, Richard Frank, B.Sc. (Lond.), 46, St. Paul’s Avenue, wood, London, N.W.2. Greenhill, Alee Walter, M.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.S., D.I.C., 26, FishpondsRoad, Upper Tooting, London, S.W.17.Hay, William, l3.S~. (Edin.), 47, Darnel1 Road, Trinity, Edinburgh. Heppenstall, Thomas Arthur, M.Sc. (Liv.), 67, Portman Road, Wavertree, Liverpool. Holt, Winston Ellis, B.A. (Oxon), 3, Larkhall Place, Bath. Hoyle, Edward, B.Sc. (Leeds), 13, Whitehall Street, Wakefield. Jephcott, Leslie George, B.Sc. (Birm.), 133, Medlicott Road, Sparkhill,Birmingham. John, William David, B.A. (Cantab.) B.Sc. (Lond.), 30, Rosslyn Road, Maindee, Newport, Mon. Jones, Griffith Glyn, B.Sc. (Wales), R/I.Sc. (Cantab.),4, T’kr Villas, Tnwyn,Merionethshire. Keast, Alan Richard, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.R., 2, Montana Roarl, T JpperTooting, London, S.W.17. Kerr, John William, 13.8~.((ilas.), 746, Shieltls Kontl, I’ollokshields, Glasgow.Knight, Arthur Reginald, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.K.C.S., 4, Queen’s \Vslk Villas, Rrierley Street, Nottingham. S,ead, Wilfred Livingstone, l3.S~.(Liv.), Briarseroft, Warrington Road, Rainhill, Lancs. Livingstone, Alexander Young, A.R.T.C., 15a, Bank Street, Felkirk. 8tirling. Matthews, Geoffrey Charles, I3.Sc. (Lond.), 31, Stapenhill Road, Burton- on-Trent. kGaffin, Ralph Charles, B.Sc. (S.A.), M.Sc. (University of Cape Town), Cape Technical College, Longmarket Street, Cape Town. heale, Miss Dorothy Grace, l3.S~.(Lond.), 28, Forty Lane, Wembiey,Middlesex. 368 Oliver, t3yril Vernon, B.Sc. (Lond.), 10, Hnyle Road, Maidstone, Kent. Olpin, Henry Charles, B.Sc. (Lee&), “East Dene,” Victoria Avenue, Borrowash, nr. Derby. Park, Miss Caroline Alice Rachel, A.R.C.Sc.l., B,Sc.(Loid.), Gleriderrnott Manse, Drumshoe, Londonderry. Price, William Bennett, B.Sc. (Lond.), ‘the Laurels, Woolwich Road, Belvedere, Kent. Pring, Miss Marjorie Ellen, B.Sc. (Lond.), 66, St. Augustine’s Avenue, S. Croydon, Surrey. Provan, Andrew Lloyd, B.Sc. (Wales), The Chateau, Crickhowell, 13recon-shire. Roberts, Arthur Howard, A.R.C.S., D.I.C., Gammons Farm, Gammons Lane, Watford, Herts. Rosa, Louis Michael, B.Sc. (Lond.), A.R.C.S., Bayswater Chambers, St. Stephen’s Road, London, W.2. Savill, Albert Henry, B.Sc. (Lond.), 146, Woolwich Road, London, S.E. 10. Smith, Victor, M.Sc. (Manc.), 24, Park View, Wigan, Lancs. Thomason, Reuben ’CVilliam, M.Sc. (Birm.), 87, Greenfield Road, Harhorne, Birmingham.Thornley, Sidney, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Manc.), 10, Kensal Avenue, Prntllebnry, near Manchester. Voelcker, Eric, A.R.C.S., 7, Durham Villas, Kensington, London, %‘.8. Wood, David Rainforth, B.Sc. (Edin.), Stanhurst, Rurntjsland, Fife. New Associates (by examination). R~irns,Edward Francis, B.Sc. (Lond.), 118, Abbey Road, St. John’s Woncl, London, N.W.6. Holmes, Ernest John, B.Sc. (Lond.). 2, Castle Row, Qosport, Hsnts. New Students. Adani, Andrew Wood, 52, Clavering Road, Manor Park, London, E.12. Bacon, Eric Sidney, 78, South Street, Ponders End, Middlesex. Bissell, William John, 863, London Road, Westcliff -on-Sea. Campbell, Alfred Randolph, 205, Albert Road, Pollokshields, C:l~~sgo~. Cook, John Henry, 84, Braeside Street, Glasgow, N.W.Coope, Robert, 144, Lawrence Road, Wavertree, Liverpool. Davis, Alfred Winfield, 6, Belle Vue, Treforest, Clamorgan. Ditcham, John Barrington, 40, Tooting Bee Road, TJpp‘cr Tnotjing,London, S.W.17. Ellis, Roland Leslie David, 40, Wern Road, Landore, Swansea. Fawns, Humphrey Theodore, 35, Heathurst Road, Sanderstead, Snrrey. Francis, Ronald Marcus Lloyd, 142, Chesterton Road, Cambridge. (iellman, Alexander, 44, Pembury Road, Clapton , London, E.5. Gordon, James Gray, 50, West Church Street, Buckie. Gough, Rodney Brinsmead, 456, High Road, Streatham Common, London, S.W.16. Qreenaway, Leonard Ernest, 17, Hillsleigh Road, Campdcn Hill, London, w.8. Groves, Miss Ida Mary, 39, Earlsbury Gardens, Handsworth, Birmingham. Hall, Robert Oswald, The Eaves, Bradford Road, Wakefield.369 Hirst, Thomas William, 157, Fountain .Road, Tooting, Lontlon, 8.W.17 Hunter, Edward, 30, Guilford Street, Russell Square, London, W.C.l. Johnson, Ashby James, 33, Winchester Avenue, Setiglcy Park, Prestmich, Manchester. Johnstone, Michael 'L'hoinas, l%a,Westbourne Road, lGlgbastoii, Birming-ham. Kemp, Edward Frederick, 18a, Church Street, Enfield, Middlesex. Lakeman, Miss Enid, Bedford College, Regent's Park, London, N.TV.l. Lee, Donald Gilbert, 69, Woodland Road, Tyndalls Park, Bristol. Levy, Miss Eva Rebecca, 21, St. James' Mansions, London, N.W.6. Lloyd, John Bradburn, 7, Cambridge Road, Port Ellesmere, Birkenhead. Malec, Henry Lawrence, 93, Goldhawk Road, Shepherd's Bush, London, w.12.Mason, Reginald Dean, 2 1, Ormiston Road, Shepherd's BUS^, London, w.12. Meyer, Percy, B.Sc. (Lond.), 86, McLeod Road, London, S.E.2. Muers, Morris Marcus, 45, Hoppers Road, Winchmore Hill, London, N.21. Murphy, Leslie Gilbert, 30, Saltram Crescent, Paddington, London, TV.9. Packman, Percival Gilbert, 66, Hamilton Road, Highbury, London, N.6. Pavitt, William Frank, 3, Bowerdean Street, Fulham, London, S.W.G. Pnsey, Stanley Ernest, 54, Cranbury Road, Fulham, London, X.W.6. Reed, Sydney James, 59, Egton Street, Hull. Robertson, Edward Blair, 19, Morpeth Mansions, Westminster, Lontlnn, 8.W.1. Samuel, Oswald, Glan-y-Gors, Rhiwfaur, Swansea. Spithle, Henry Mills, Hillfoot, Bungalow, Church Street, Wcdnrsbnry, Staffs. Stein, Charles Ponder, 67, Stanhope Avenue, Finchley, London, N.3.Thomas, Oswald, 70, Alltygrug Road, Ystalyfera, Swansea. Weir, Stanley, 237, Great Clowes Street, Broughton, Manchester. DEATHS. Fellows. James Grant, M.Se. (Manc.). TCdmund Knecht, Ph.D. (Zurich), M.Rc.Tech. (RTItnc.). JVilliam Robert Lang, D.Sc. (Glas.). Rohert Walter Oddy. Robert Llewellyn Taylor. Major Arthur Wilson, M.C. Associates. James Vl'illiam Henry Pattison, A.R.T.C. Shyamakant Govind Sardesai, Ph.D. (Berlin), B.A., 13.S~. (Bombay). CHANGE OF NAMES. Hilda Louise Kingston, Associate, to Manning---on her marriage. Grace Lechmere Reynolds, Associute, to Lewis-on her marriage. Elaie Woodward, Associate, to Kassner-on her marriage. Lillian Georgina Chapman, Registered Student, to Mansel-Lewis-on her marriage. 370 REGISTER-ADDRESSES UNKNOWN.The Registrar would be greatly obliged if any member who is aware of the addresses of the following Fellows and Associates would kindly communicate with him, -giving the required in-forma.tion. F. Alford, H. 3. A. Lodge, G. A. Allan, H. F. Millin, D. A. Asherson, N. A. Morton, E. F. Bayley, F. S. A. McEntegart, J. &I. A. Beynon, E. &I. A. McLaren, Miss M. C. A. Brown, T. 1’. A. McParland, A. Q. A. Burton, J. A. Neilson, J. F. A. Child, A. .T. F. Nolan, H. F. Clayton, -4. A. Norris, W. S. G. 1’. F. Cooper, A. J. A. Oriel, J. A. A. Couch, D. L. A. Oxley, H. F. A. Coyle, V, [. A. Purdon, A. 0. A. Crook,S. E. A. Puri, A. N. A.Curtis, It. F. Reeve, H. T. :I?. Davies, P. M. A. Robinson, E. A. Davies, T. E. A. Robinson, G. A. Evans, H. G. A. Savage, B. A. Evans, T. A. Scott, J. rA. A. Fyfe, A. W. A. Xellars, 13. L. A. Gardner, Mrs. G. E. P. A. Slater, L,I?. Garle, J. L. A. Soper, F. (2.A. Gifford, E. C. A. Spearing, C. E. F. Goldsbrough, H. A. F. Stanhill, D. R. A. Grantham, D. R. A. Stern, H. A. Hargreaves, G. W. A. Sykes, L. X. A. Harrap, F. N. A. Talbot, R. A. Harris, C. A. Third, J. A. Hazeldon, tJ. N. F. Thndichnm, C: . 11, F. Head, C. J. A. Walker, E. A. Highfield, A. A. Waters, I?. W. P. Hunt, P. C. R. A. Weaving, 1%. A. A. Ingham, F. T. A. Weil, J. A. A. Irwin, J. H. A. Weston, E. I’ A. Jarrard, W. J. A. Whalley, G. W. F. Johnson, E.13. F. Whewell, (4.A. Johnson, J. C. F. White, A. Z,. A. Kenny, T. C. A. Wisbey, E. 0. F. Kernot, J. C. A. Wise, J. F. A. Lewis, J. S. A. Worcester, D. General Notices. Meldola Medal.-The Meldola Medal is awarded annually to the chemist whose published chemical work shows the most promise and is brought to the notice of the administrators during the year ending 31st December prior to the award; without restricting the award to any particular branch of chemical work, the administrators have primary regard to work bearing on analytica! chemistry. The recipient must be a British subject not more than 30 years of age at the time of the completion of the work; but until 1928the award may be made to candidates who at the time of the completion of the work are more thaii 30 years of age, provided that the age of the recipient does not exceed 30 by more than the period during which the recipient was engaged on active naval, military or air service.The Medal may not be awarded more than once to the same person. The Council will be glad to have their attention directed to work of the character indicated. The award for the year 1925 will be made in January, 1926. Any Fellow or Associate who desires to direct the attention of the Council to work of the character indicated should communicate immediately with the Registrar. Examinations in 1 926.-The arrangements for examiria-lions during 1926 are as follows:- Dates of Exams. Entries close. 4th to 9th Jan., 1926. List closed. 19th to 24th April, 1926.Monday, 15th Feb., 1926. OY 26th April to 1st May, 1926. 20th to 25th Sept., 1926. Monday, 19th July, 1926. 0~27thSept. to 2nd Oct., 1926. Candidates for the Associateship will be examined in January, April arid September, and candidates for the Fellowship in Aiwil and Seppieml-,~ronly. 372 Notice to Associates,-Associates elected prior to January, 1923, who have been continuously engaged in the study and practical applications of chemistry for at least three years since their election to the Associateship, can obtain from the Registrar particulars of the Regulations and forms of application for the Fellowship. Appointments Register -A Register of Fellows and Associates of the Institute of Chemistry who are available for appointments is kept at the Offices of the Institute. For full information, inquiries should be addressed to the Registrar.Fellows and Associates are invited to notify the Institute of suitable vacancies for qualified chemists. Students who have been registered as Students of the Institute for not less than six months and are in the last term of their college course may receive the Appointments Register of thc Institute on the same terms as Fellows and Associates, provided that their applications for this privilege be endorsed by their Professors. Lists of vacancies are forwarded twice weekly to those whose names are on the Appointments Register. Fellows and Associates who are already in employment, but seeking to improve their positions, are required to pay 10s.for a period of six months. Members and Students who are without cmploy- inent are required to pay 6s. 6d. for the first period of six months, and, if not successful in obtaining an appointment, will there- after be supplied with the lists gratis for a further period of six months if necessary. The Institute also maintains a Register of Laboratory Assistants who have passed approved Preliminary Examinations and, in some cases, Intermediate Science Examinations. Fellows and Associates who have vacancies for such assistants and students are invited to communicate with the Registrar. The Library.-The Library of the Institute is open for the use of Fellows, Associates, and Registered Students, between the hours of 10a.m.and 6 p.m. on week-days (Saturdays: 10a.m. and I p.m.), except when examinations are being held. The library consists of books which are likely to be required by candidates during the Institute’s practical examinations. The comprehensive Library of the Chemical Society is avail-able, by the courtesy of the Council of the Society, for the use 373 of Fellows and Associates of the Institute wishing to consult oi-borrow books, from 10a.m. to 9 p.m. on week-days (Saturdays from xo a.m. to 5 p.m.). Registered Students of the Institute are also permitted for the present year to use the Library of the Chemical Society for reference purposes, but not to borrow books. Members and Students of the Institute using the library of the Society are required to conform to the rules of the Society regarding the use of its books.Berichte der Deutschen C h emi schen GeseIIsc Ii aft.--The Council will be grateful to any member who will assist in making up the Institute’s set of the Bevichte for the year 1924 and since. Changes of Address.-In view of the expense involved, through frequent alterations of addressograph plates, etc., Fellows, Associates, and Registered Students who wish to notify changes of address are requested to give, as far as possible, their permanent addresses for registration. Covers for Journal.-Members who desire covers for binding the Journal (cost about IS. 2d. each) are requested to notify the Registrar of their requirements by indicating the dates of the years for which they are desirous of binding the Journal.Arrangements have been made with Messrs. A. W. Bain & Co., Ltd., 17-19, Bishop’s Road, Cambridge Heath, London, E.z, to bind volumes of the JOURNAL AND PROCEEDINGStheon following terms:-Buckram case, IS. zd. ; binding, 2s. gd. ; postage and packing, 9d.; in all, 4s. 8d. Lantern SI ides for Lectu res.-Fellows and Associates are invited to co-operate in forming a collection of slides, to be kept at the Institute and placed at the disposal of members who wish to give lectures, or, alternatively to notify the Registrar if they are prepared to lend slides for this purpose. The collection already includes a large number of portraits and pictures of alchemists and chemists.Sir George Beilby Memorial.-A Joint Committee of Officers and representatives of the Institute of Chemistry, the Institute of Metals, and the Society of Chemical Industry has 374 issued an appeal for funds and particulars of a proposal for the establishment of a memorial to the late Sir George Beilby. With the concurrence of the Councils of the three bodies- of each of which Sir George was a past-president-the appeal has been issued for subscriptions towards a fund from which, at intervals to be determined by the administrators, substantial sums will be awarded to mark appreciation of a record of distinguished work in science, bearing in mind the special interests of Sir George Beilby viz. applied chemistry, chemical engineering and metallurgy. The proposal does not imply an award on the result of a competition for work on a set theme or the solution of a definite scientific problem, but the recognition of work of exceptional merit.The Joint Committee hopes to raise a sum of not less than &,ooo-providing an income of about f125.0 a year for awards. Mr. Patrick H. Kirkaldy and Mr. John Fry have consented to act as Honorary Treasurers. The Secretaries of the three co-operating bodies have been appointed Honorary Secretaries, with the Registrar and Secretary of the Institute of Chemistry, as convener. District Members of Council.-The following have been returned as District Members of Council to take office at the Annual General Meeting to be held on Monday, 1st March, 1926:-(i) Birmingham and Midlands : Cyril Alexander Frederick Hastilow, M.Sc.(ii) Bristol and South-Western Counties : Frank Southerden, B.Sc. (iii) Liverpool and North-West Coast : Herbert John Evans, B.Sc. (iv) London and South-Eastern Counties: Ernest Mostyn Hawkins. (v) Manchester and District : Samuel Ernest Melling. (vi) North-East Coast and Yorkshire: Lewis Gordon Paul, Ph.D. (vii) Edinburgh and East of Scotland: Leonard Dobbin, Ph.D. (viii) Glasgow and West of Scotland: Walter Henry Coleman. 376 (ix) Wales and the County of Monmouthshire: Clarence Arthur Seyler, B.Sc. (x) Northern Ireland: Joseph Harold Totton, B.A., BSc. (xi) Irish Free State : William Robert Fearon, M.A., DSc. (xii) The Overseas Dominions, The Empire of India, and Abroad: Frankland Dent, Ph.D., MSc. Nomination of General Members of Council.-Attention is directed to the By-laws relating to the nomination of Members of Council:-By-law 26. (1) Any twenty menibem, not being members of the Clouncil, may nominate one eligible Fellow as a candidate for election as a General Member of the Council, but no Member shall nominate more than one such Fellow. (2) Any nomination made under this By-law shall be delivered to the Secretary sm weeks at lemt before the Annual General Meeting, and shall lx in the following form: “We the undersigned, Members of tho Institute of Chemistryof Great Britain and Ireland do hereby certify that A.B., of (registeredaddress) , a Fellow of this Instituto, is, in our estimation, a fit and proper person to be a General Member of the Councilof the Institute, and w0 do hereby nominate him as aCandidate for election as it General Member of the Council.” (3) Any such nomination may consist of several documents in like form, each signed by one or more Members. (The name of every candidate nominated in accordance with By-law 26 will be included in the Balloting List).By-law 24 (2). No person who has been elected as a District Member of the Council for any year of Office shall be eligible for election as a General Member of the Council for that year of Office and if such person is elected 88 President, Vice-president or Treasurer, for that year of Office he shall vacate his Office as a District Member of the Council and the racanoy shall be filled up as on a casual vacancy.The names of the Vice-president and General Members of Council who retire at the next Annual General Meeting, and who are ineligible for re-election as such, are as follows: President, Arthur Smithells, C.M.G. , B.Sc., F.R.S. ; Members of Council Frederick Daniel Chattaway, M.A., D.Sc., F.K.S., Harold Govett Colman, D.Sc., Ph.D., Arthur James Hale, Hamilton McCombie, D.S.O., M.A., Ph.D., Robert Howson Pickard, D.Sc., Ph.D,, F.R.S., Benjamin Dawson Porritt, M.Sc., William David Rogers, B.Sc. ,A.R.C.S., Harry Silvester. 376 ATTEKDANCES AT MEETINGS OF THE COUSCIL AND CONMITTEES, MARCH TO DECEMBER, 1926.Council. (lounuil in Uommihtee. ( 'ommittcc. G. G. Henderson . . (Jlasgow . . .. E. C. C. Baly ..Liverpool . . .. E. R. Bolton ..London . . .. A. Chaston Chapman London .. .. T. Slater Price ..London .. .. ..London .. .. ..London .. .. . . London .. .. ..Somerset .. .. . . Maidstone .. ..Newcastle-on-Tyne London . . .. ..Oxford .. .. ..London .. .. . . Glasgow .. .. ..London .. .. ..Edinburgh .. ..London . . .. ..Liverpool . . .. ..London .. .. ..Irish Free State .. . . Northern Ireland ..Glasgow .. .. ..London . . .. ..London .. .. ..Birmingham . . ..London .. .. ..Liverpool . . .. ..Exeter .. .. ..London .. .. ..Cambridge .. ..ManChester . . ..Wolverhampton .. ..Huddorsfield .. ..London .... ..London .. .. ..ManChester .. ..Ardrossan .. ..ManChester . . ..Manchester .. ..Wales .. .. ..Birmingham .. ..Burton-on-Trent . . ..Bristol .. .. ..London . . .. ..Aberdeen .. ..Glasgow .. .. A. Smithells .. E. W. Voelcker P. H. Kirkaldy L. Archbutt .. F. W. F. Arnaud H. C. L. Bloxam Arthur J. ChapmanF. D. Chattaway H. G. Colman W. M.CummingFrcanklandDent L.Dobbin .. A. V. Elsden €3. J.Evans .. L.Eynon .. W. R. Fearon W. H. Gibson T. Gray .. W. H. Greaves A. J.Hale .. C. A. F. Hastilow E. 1%.Hawkins I. M. Heilbron W. H. Lewis T.Macara .. H. McCombie S.E. Melling. . R. S. Morrell. . L.G.Pau1 .. R. H. Pickard B. D. Porritt F. L. Pyman. . W.Rintou1 ., W. D. Rogers F. Scholefield C.A. Seyler . . H. Silvester A.Slator . . F. Southerden J.F. ThorpsJ.F. Tocher .. J.H. 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